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  • target genes
  • We show that the positions of posterior boundaries of Bcd target genes are dependent not only on Bcd, but also on Tor-mediated Cic activity. (pnas.org)
  • This concentration-dependent gene activation is thought to be mediated by the affinity of binding sites for Bcd within target genes ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • sequences
  • The sequences analyzed included the ORFs of all identified genes in or near the interval ( Fig. 1 A ). In this comparison, we detected only a 1-nt difference between mutant and parent strains, a C-to-T transition in the ORF of the CG15720 ( 11 ) predicted gene. (pnas.org)
  • The changes provide powerful assays for identifying the trans -acting factors that regulate the homeotic genes and the cis -acting sequences through which they act. (nih.gov)
  • To analyse directly the evolutionary characteristics of orphan genes in Drosophila, 774 sequences were compared between cDNAs retrieved from two D. yakuba libraries (embryo and adult) and their corresponding D. melanogaster orthologues. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The lethal(3)73Ah gene is located in a densely transcribed region sharing 3'-untranslated sequences with the adjacent sex-determining gene, transformer. (nih.gov)
  • Because zinc fingers can be directed to a broad range of DNA sequences and targeting is very efficient, this approach promises to allow genetic manipulation of many different genes, even in cases where the mutant phenotype cannot be predicted. (genetics.org)
  • Enhancer
  • The results indicate that Cic can mediate repression through distinct binding sites within a Bcd responsive enhancer and that gene activation by Bcd is antagonized by Cic. (pnas.org)
  • The activating and repressive effects of Bcd and Cic, respectively, are integrated by the Bcd target gene enhancer. (pnas.org)
  • induction
  • The level of induction of the diptericin gene in immune-challenged adults varies strikingly with the microorganism tested. (sdbonline.org)
  • The pattern of cecropin A, drosocin, defensin, and attacin induction roughly corresponds to the pattern of diptericin induction Drosophila that are naturally infected by entomopathogenic fungi exhibit an adapted response by producing only peptides (especially drosomycin ) with antifungal activities. (sdbonline.org)
  • Depletion of Pc gene products by Pc3 mutation strongly enhances the induction phenomenon, as shown by (1) the increase of the number of wing disc cells in which induction of the homologous allele is detectable, and (2) the induction of not only a paired normal allele but also an unpaired one. (genetics.org)
  • among genes
  • Recent reports suggest that levels of codon bias differ among genes that are differentially expressed between the sexes, with male-expressed genes showing less codon bias than female-expressed genes. (genetics.org)
  • Selection intensity for codon usage bias, therefore, is expected to vary among genes. (genetics.org)
  • Additionally, orphans are over-represented among genes related to olfaction, hormonal activity, puparial adhesion, egg membrane structure and perception and response to abiotic stimulus. (uni-koeln.de)
  • chromosome
  • This retrosequence, which is located at 102F on the fourth chromosome, recruited a nearby exon and intron, thereby evolving a chimeric gene structure. (pnas.org)
  • The Xist gene, which is polyadenylated and plays a crucial role in inactivating X chromosome, is also only found in mammals ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The proportions of genes required for male fertility do not differ significantly between the X chromosome and the autosomes, however, translocations that exchange large portions of the X chromosome and one of the two large autosomes frequently disrupt spermatogenesis and cause male sterility, both in Drosophila and in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • evolutionary characteristics
  • A straightforward answer might be obtained by directly examining an RNA gene that originated recently, because the evolutionary characteristics related to the molecular processes of origin and subsequent evolutionary dynamics of new genes may be more easily observed in such a gene. (pnas.org)
  • reveals
  • A comparison of the CRMs for the Abdominal-B gene from different Drosophila species reveals relatively low levels of overall sequence conservation. (harvard.edu)
  • Model Organisms
  • Large mutant collections exist for a number of model organisms, but some genes are not represented, and the nature of the alterations is not under the control of the experimenter. (genetics.org)
  • insertion
  • Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. (fu-berlin.de)
  • spx originated as an insertion of a retroposed sequence of the ATP synthase chain F gene at the cytological region 60DB since the divergence of Drosophila melanogaster from its sibling species 2-3 million years ago. (pnas.org)
  • = PZ}Dl 05151 P-element insertion in the Drosophila melanogaster genome that causes a dominant visible phenotype: the presence of characteristic extra-veins in the fly wings. (plos.org)
  • Second, a wild-type gene was disrupted by the insertion of a marker gene in exon 1 at a rate of ≈1/380 gametes. (pnas.org)
  • mutant
  • The Drosophila memory mutant radish is specifically deficient in anesthesia-resistant memory and so represents the only molecular avenue to understanding this memory component. (pnas.org)
  • divergence
  • Sequence comparisons suggest that two Na+-channel genes arose early in evolution, before the divergence of vertebrate and invertebrate lines. (pnas.org)
  • A general model for orphan gene evolution is proposed that takes these large rate differences into account and suggests that they are caused by episodic phases of fast and slow divergence. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We surveyed sequence variation and divergence for the entire 5972-bp transcriptional unit of the white gene in 15 lines of Drosophila melanogaster and one line of D. simulans . (genetics.org)
  • functionally
  • For example, in the complete sample of the recovered cDNAs higher frequency of genetically studied genes was found among slow evolving genes, what supports the proposed hypothesis that functionally more important genes with obvious phenotypes have lower evolutionary rates. (uni-koeln.de)
  • misexpression
  • Hence, most members of the trxG family were identified as dominant suppressors of phenotypes caused by misexpression of homeotic genes ( K ennison and T amkun 1988 ). (genetics.org)
  • The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene misexpression. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Development
  • This quiz will test you on the key definitions related to homeotic genes and drosophila development. (study.com)
  • Once you have completed the quiz, head over to the related lesson titled Role of Homeotic Genes in Drosophila Development. (study.com)
  • The insert is a PZ element located 680 bp upstream from the ATG of the Delta ( Dl ) gene, encoding the Notch ligand involved in wing vein development, and acts as a null allele. (plos.org)
  • The trans -acting factors are also conserved between Drosophila and human and have important functions, not only in development but also in stem-cell maintenance and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Daily research seminars present comprehensive overviews of specific subfields of nervous system development or function or focus on state-of-the-art techniques and approaches in Drosophila neuroscience. (cshl.edu)
  • Over the past 25 years, gene targeting has been widely used in model eukaryotes, first in yeast and then in mice ( 1 , 2 ), but the difficulty of introducing a linear DNA molecule into germ-line cells hindered its development for Drosophila . (pnas.org)
  • evolve
  • Thus, these observations give rise to an interesting question: how did new RNA genes originate and evolve throughout the history of gene evolution? (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of substitution rates shows that recovered orphans evolve on average more than three times faster than non-orphan genes, although the width of the evolutionary rate distribution is similar for both classes. (uni-koeln.de)
  • genetics
  • The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. (fu-berlin.de)
  • species
  • It has been observed that some ncRNAs only exist in particular lineages or species, suggesting that nature must have independently created these new RNA genes during evolution. (pnas.org)
  • We extended this approach to search for young genes in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, where we identified a young RNA gene that originated in D. melanogaster since it diverged from its sibling species about 2 million years ago. (pnas.org)
  • disruption
  • The BDGP gene disruption project: single transposon insertions associated with 40% of Drosophila genes. (fu-berlin.de)
  • This male sterility is not caused by disruption of individual genes, but by interference with differential regulation of sex chromosomes and autosomes during spermatogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • understood
  • A substantial fraction of coding regions in any genome sequenced so far consists of such orphan genes, but their evolutionary and functional significance is not understood. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Insect
  • One exception is the involvement of P450s in the biosynthesis of the major insect hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20H) from plant sterols, where in Drosophila melanogaster at least six P450s are involved ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • distinct
  • Distinct from paramutation events so far described in Drosophila , here we deal with a dominant effect on a single gene involving variable hereditary signals. (plos.org)
  • exon
  • Gilbert speculated that exon shuffling could serve to create new RNA genes in the RNA world ( 11 ). (pnas.org)