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  • protein
  • Expression of the neural specific protein, GAP-43, dramatically lengthens the cell cycle in fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The functional analysis of missense mutations can be complicated by the presence in the cell of the endogenous protein. (jove.com)
  • Structure-function analyses of the BRCA1 have been complicated by the lack of a robust assay for the full length BRCA1 protein and the difficulties inherent in working with cell lines that express hypomorphic BRCA1 protein 1,2,3,4,5 . (jove.com)
  • We developed a system whereby the endogenous BRCA1 protein in a cell was acutely depleted by RNAi targeting the 3'-UTR of the BRCA1 mRNA and replaced by co-transfecting a plasmid expressing a BRCA1 variant. (jove.com)
  • As an example, the expression of the BRCA1(M18T) protein, a variant of unknown clinical significance 10 , was expressed in these cells, it failed to restore BRCA1-dependent homologous recombination. (jove.com)
  • Taken together with the fact that Ant4 protein has a uniquely conserved structure when compared to other somatic Ant1, 2 and 3, there may be a specific advantage for mammals and lizards to express Ant4 in their male germ cells. (jove.com)
  • The protein is relatively abundant, around 10,000 dimers/cell, and is localized in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Upon T cell activation, KLF2 expression is lost, a process that is thought to initiate with KLF2 protein degradation (probably involving ubiquitination) and subsequent loss of KLF2 mRNA ( 5 , 7 , 12 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • PRC1 protein is expressed at relatively high levels during S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle before dropping dramatically after mitotic exit and entrance into G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coordinated suppression of proliferation-inhibitors allows miR-17-5p to efficiently de-couple negative regulators of the MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) signaling cascade, promoting growth in HEK293T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein kinase Bub1 possesses versatile and distinct functions during the cell cycle, mainly in the SAC and chromosome alignment during metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PCM1 protein was originally identified by virtue of its distinct cell cycle-dependent association with the centrosome complex and microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein appears to associate with the centrosome complex during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-reactive protein levels in the blood need to be measured every few days in order to have enough time points to show a repeating fluctuation (a wave-like cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • from the Mayo Clinic found that the immune cycle is also evident in fluctuations beyond C-reactive protein, as it can be seen in "infradian immune biorhythms of both immune cell subpopulations and cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A spindle poison, also known as a spindle toxin, is a poison that disrupts cell division by affecting the protein threads that connect the centromere regions of chromosomes, known as spindles. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Metastasis is a process in which tumor cells shed from the primary tumor intravasate blood vascular and lymphatic system, thereby, gaining access to extravasate and form a secondary niche. (jove.com)
  • The extravasation of tumor cells from the blood vascular system can be studied using endothelial cells (ECs) and tumor cells obtained from different cell lines. (jove.com)
  • However, to observe and study interactions with rare cells such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), certain changes are required to be made to the conventional flow chamber assembly. (jove.com)
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant skin tumor originating from cells of the epidermal basal layer and adnexal epithelium, especially in sun-exposed areas. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • However compared to normal cells, CAK activity is reduced in quiescent G0 cells and slightly elevated in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multinucleated cells can also occur under pathological conditions as the consequence of a disturbed cell cycle control (e.g., binucleated cells and in metastasizing tumor cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inappropriate NHEJ can lead to translocations and telomere fusion, hallmarks of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • The effect of stimuli at a whole genome level is studied by using two-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to delineate whole chromosome territories within a cell nucleus, followed by a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the chromosome. (jove.com)
  • In addition, because the method described here evaluates single cells, it can detect changes in chromosome replication timing on chromosomal rearrangements that are present in only a fraction of the cells in a population. (jove.com)
  • When a few of these sequences are deleted, DNA is still copied from other intact origins, but when many are deleted, chromosome replication slows down dramatically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tampering with this tightly monitored distribution system can result in the production of irregular chromosome content, within each cell, commonly referred to as aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • It has been postulated that distal blastemal cells proliferate, while proximal blastemal cells differentiate into missing structures. (biologists.org)
  • Re-expression of KLF2 occurs late in the effector phase of the CD8 T cell response, as memory cells begin to differentiate (a process that can be directed by appropriate cytokines) ( 5 , 7 , 12 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Multinucleate cells, depending on the mechanism they are formed, can be divided into: Syncytia (formed by cell fusion) Coenocytes (formed by nuclear division not being followed by cytokinesis) Some biologists use the term "acellular" to refer to multinucleate cell forms (syncitia and plasmodia), such as to differentiate "acellular" slime molds from the purely "cellular" ones (which do not form such structures). (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Regulation of cerebral cortical size by control of cell cycle exit in neural precursors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Understanding the cell physiology of neural circuits that regulate complex behaviors is greatly enhanced by using model systems in which this work can be performed in an intact brain preparation where the neural circuitry of the CNS remains intact. (jove.com)
  • Validation and bioinformatic analysis of propofol-induced differentially expressed microRNAs in primary cultured neural stem cells. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Recently, however, accumulating evidence suggests that it may cause neurotoxicity, especially in the development of neural stem cells (NSCs). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • germ cells
  • Toshihiro Kobayashi and Azim Surani discuss the use of new in vitro models to study the origin of human primordial germ cells, prompting further consideration of the somatic cell fate decisions that occur during early human development. (biologists.org)
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • The model organism Drosophila melanogaster offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo in culture medium. (jove.com)
  • Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. (jove.com)
  • Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages. (jove.com)
  • nucleus
  • However, to the best of our knowledge, open access software capable of quantifying spatial distribution of whole chromosomes within cell nucleus is not available. (jove.com)
  • boundary
  • Based on these findings, we propose a new model of zebrafish fin regeneration in which the function of non-proliferating, msxb -expressing, distal blastemal cells is to specify the boundary of proliferation and provide direction for regenerative outgrowth. (biologists.org)
  • The images are pre-processed to remove the smudges outside the cell boundary. (jove.com)
  • For the first time, we reveal the mechanism behind this response - miR-17-5p acts specifically at the G1/S-phase cell cycle boundary, by targeting more than 20 genes involved in the transition between these phases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cellular
  • Since they share common cellular sites and are both required for microtubule-associated processes, it is possible that these proteins function by interacting directly or through other proteins to coordinate microtubule nucleation in the cell. (rupress.org)
  • Without the enzymatic activity of Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, cellular Mal-CoA increases so dramatically that at the end it is instead broken down by an unspecific short-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase, which produces malonic acid and CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • This method is also useful for addressing cell autonomy issues in developmental mutants, such as those in which the establishment of planar cell polarity is affected. (jove.com)
  • peripheral
  • Interest in the KLF family among immunologists was sparked by a report from Leiden's group ( 5 ), which showed that deficiency for KLF2 (LKLF) caused upregulation of T cell activation markers and a dramatic loss of peripheral T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • KLF2 is induced late during maturation of thymocytes and is maintained in peripheral naive T cells ( 5 , 8 - 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally, there are descriptions of the presence of papillomavirus DNA in the blood and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Although activating phosphorylation by CAK is not exploited for cell-cycle regulation purposes, it is a highly conserved process because CAK also regulates transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that CAK is not only involved in cell-cycle regulation but is also involved in transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many cycles occur in the body - like temperature regulation and hormone levels - and the exact cause for these cycles is also unknown, but it is thought to involve the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, activated TH2 cells further release IL-4, leading to the up-regulation of the enzyme 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Overlaps
  • Additionally, as the device is scaled down in size, there comes a time when the induced field overlaps adjacent cells over a small area, leading to potential false writes. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Multinucleate cells can occur naturally under physiological conditions by the fusion of the plasma membranes of cells thus forming syncytia. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The ORC, a component of the initiation complex, binds the ACS in vivo throughout the cell cycle, and in vitro in an ATP dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • This method allows for a direct comparison of replication timing between homologous chromosomes within the same cell, and was adapted from 6 . (jove.com)
  • These recent findings indicate a direct connection between cohesion and the replication-repair machinery, supporting the notion that cohesion participates in maintaining genomic integrity and ensuring segregation of two identical copies of the genetic material into daughter cells. (asm.org)
  • Assembly of these pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) is regulated in a manner that coordinates DNA replication with the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • A quantitative PCR (qPCR) method was developed to track the dynamic interaction of P. falciparum infections containing genetically distinct parasite clones in cultured red blood cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissues
  • In this study, we found XIST expression level was upregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • occurs
  • Neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex of mice occurs in the dorsal telencephalon between embryonic day 11 (E11) and E17, during which time the majority of cortical projection neurons and some glia are produced from proliferating neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, multinucleate cells are produced from specialized cell cycles in which nuclear division occurs without cytokinesis, thus leading to large coenocytes or plasmodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Contamination of CTCs with different types of cells normally found in the circulation is inevitable using present enrichment or depletion techniques. (jove.com)
  • Normally, cells duplicate their genetic material and then produce two equal daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Cu-Zn-SOD available commercially is normally purified from bovine red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebrafish
  • Previous studies of zebrafish fin regeneration led to the notion that the regeneration blastema is a homogeneous population of proliferating cells. (biologists.org)
  • Manipulation of medaka embryos, such as dechorionation, mounting embryos for imaging and cell transplantation, are key procedures to work on both medaka and zebrafish in a laboratory. (jove.com)
  • overexpression
  • sap1 + is essential for viability, and transient overexpression is accompanied by rapid cell death, without an apparent checkpoint response and independently of mating-type switching. (asm.org)
  • 2002
  • In 2005, Mr. Martin Ashdown, a minor contributor to this 2004 paper, claimed to have discovered this cycle in 2002, although this is inconsistent with the historical record. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • The cell cycle of the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the embryonic murine cerebral wall. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study analyzed the protective effects of Tan IIA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell inflammatory injury model. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • mammals
  • Together with its identified roles in other vertebrate gonads, a testis-determining role for Sox9 in mammals is likely to have been neofunctionalized and appended to its conserved role in germ cell maintenance. (jove.com)
  • Examples include the skeletal muscle cells of mammals, the tapetal cells of plants, and the storage cells of Douglas-fir seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymorphonuclear leukocytes of mammals are not polynuclear cells, although the lobes of their nuclei are so deeply bifurcated that they can appear so under suboptimal microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • They are typically found to have 5 nuclei per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, different people have different immune cycles although each cycle is typically repeated every seven days. (wikipedia.org)
  • A particular cell is (typically) selected by powering an associated transistor that switches current from a supply line through the cell to ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • assemblies
  • Therefore, different flow chamber assemblies are currently being used to studying cancer cell interactions with ECs. (jove.com)
  • Current flow chamber assemblies offer reproducible results using either different cell lines or fluid at different shear stress conditions. (jove.com)
  • A "battery" or "battery pack" is a collection of cells or cell assemblies which are ready for use, as it contains an appropriate housing, electrical interconnections, and possibly electronics to control and protect the cells from failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The expression of this gene was found to be dramatically induced by TGF beta, which suggested its role in the TGF beta induced growth inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells which are found commonly in the human body that aid in the maintenance and repair of the bones by secreting acid that dissolves bone matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Donor cells can be transplanted to specific areas of the recipient embryos based on the fate maps 3 so that clones from transplanted cells can be integrated in the tissue of interest during development. (jove.com)
  • detect
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The role of KLF2 and KLF4 in control of T cell quiescence is shown with a dotted line, since the physiologic significance of this pathway is unclear. (jimmunol.org)
  • regulate
  • Within cells, this enzyme helps regulate the formation and breakdown of a certain group of fats called fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Here, we isolated the Tub4 complex with the bound receptors from yeast cells. (jove.com)
  • assay
  • Cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for years there has been a debate about its accuracy, due to problems in the original assay which caused necrotic cells to be inappropriately labeled as apoptotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • This is caused by the synchronous division of T cells over time, with T-effector cells boosting immune activity followed by T-regulatory cells suppressing the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Msc6 and Msc2 complex not only activates cell cycle Cdks but also regulates gene expression because it is part of the transcription factor TFIIH. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • One advantage of this procedure is that the acute silencing of BRCA1 and simultaneous replacement allow the cells to grow without secondary mutations or adaptations that might arise over time to compensate for the loss of BRCA1 function. (jove.com)
  • Expression
  • While msxb is widely expressed among proliferating cells during blastema formation, its expression becomes restricted to a small number of non-proliferating, distal blastemal cells during regenerative outgrowth. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, miR-34a suppressed the expression of WNT1 by binding with the 3'-UTR, which interact with WNT1 to inhibit the proliferation of cells. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • For example, KLF1 (also called EKLF) is critical for the switch to adult hemoglobin expression in developing erythrocytes, whereas KLF4 (GKLF) is well studied as a factor involved in reprogramming mature cells to become induced pluripotent stem cells ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we show that miR-17-92 is a cell cycle regulated locus, and ectopic expression of a single microRNA (miR-17-5p) is sufficient to drive a proliferative signal in HEK293T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • subsequently
  • He also adopted the term "battery", (denoting the increasing of power with a row of similar units as in a battery of cannon), subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine
  • indicated that the exposure of retinal neurosensory and glial cells to HIV Tat resulted in increased activation and release of proinflammatory mediators, predominantly the chemokine and neurotoxic factor CXCL10 and the cytokine TNF- α [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • solar cells
  • Potential graphene applications include lightweight, thin, flexible, yet durable display screens, electric/photonics circuits, solar cells, and various medical, chemical and industrial processes enhanced or enabled by the use of new graphene materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • The blockage of unselective Pt corner sites by Co and its electronic influence to the Pt surface can dramatically improve the catalytic performance of Pt for the selective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Human
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human interference has dramatically changed the habitat of T. carnifex due to the expansion of industrial areas and urban centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55 −/− but not p75 −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • The expression of IL-12/IL-23 p40 was up-regulated in lymph nodes (LN) from p55 −/− mice, and the expansion of Th1/Th17 cells was abrogated by blockade of p40. (rupress.org)
  • After onset of arthritis, mice were treated with soluble TNFR-Fc for 10 d and the production of IL-17 and IFNγ by LN cells was determined by ELISA. (rupress.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • unexpectedly
  • TNF blockade using TNFR-Fc fusion protein or anti-TNF monoclonal antibody reduced arthritis severity but, unexpectedly, expanded populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, which were shown by adoptive transfer to be pathogenic. (rupress.org)
  • phase
  • Analyses of cell cycle distribution, and morphological microtubules organization showed that compound 3m induced G2/M phase arrest and, dramatically disrupted the microtubule network. (deepdyve.com)
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cell lines
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Surprisingly, our data show that TNFα is an important negative regulator, not only of IL-17 but also of IFNγ production by T cells. (rupress.org)
  • In the gills, there are neuroepithelial cells, which are important for sensing oxygen during developmental and adult stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Finally, although TNF blockade increased numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells in LN, it inhibited their accumulation in the joint, thereby providing an explanation for the paradox that anti-TNF therapy ameliorates arthritis despite increasing numbers of pathogenic T cells. (rupress.org)
  • However, effective antibiotic therapy has dramatically reduced the number of deaths caused by Rocky Mountain spotted fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphene has also been reported to be efficiently taking up cancerous cells thereby enabling the design of drug delivery agents for cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Thus, it is clearly an effective agent for promoting weight gain, increasing appetite, gaining strength, and increasing Red Blood Cell count. (blogspot.com)
  • These holes allow special blood cells called phagocytes to penetrate into all parts of the body. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-infected cells and is found circulating in the blood of HIV-1-infected patients [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • these make up the water-blood barrier, in particular where the capillaries are immediately below the basal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural
  • More realistic, and often overlooked, options include long-term crop rotations, returning to natural cycles that annually flood cultivated lands (returning lost nutrients indefinitely) such as the flooding of the Nile, the long-term use of biochar, and use of crop and livestock landraces that are adapted to less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, we have found that palmitate inhibits adiponectin production by adipocytes in a cell-autonomous fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, TNFα has been shown in vitro to drive the production of IL-17 by equipping DC with the ability to differentiate T cells toward a Th17 phenotype ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • death
  • A proper balance between Bcl-2 and Bax determines cell survival and cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • 50 cells/ μ L. With the increasing longevity of these patients due to the use of HAART, treatment of IRU may become an issue in the future. (hindawi.com)
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • Review
  • It has taken more time than we anticipated to integrate the advice of a host of external expert advisors and to take every possible step to develop the strongest possible file that positions us for potential approval in the first review cycle. (bio-medicine.org)
  • lead
  • Though the function of these cells remains unclear, the high abundance of them in pond-dwelling species, which live in a low oxygenated environment, in comparison to stream-dwelling species, which live in a higher oxygenated environment, can lead to the conclusion that Leydig cells form in response to these conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)