• Part B Primary: To determine the safety and tolerability of GSK2118436 and GSK1120212 dosed orally in combination in subjects with BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma or other BRAF-positive tumors. (mdanderson.org)
  • Part A Primary: To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of single dose (Day 1) GSK2118436 (and its metabolite(s), including GSK2285403), alone and with repeat dose (Days 2 through 15) GSK1120212 dosed orally. (mdanderson.org)
  • Part D: Randomized GSK2118436 HPMC Cohorts Primary: To determine the single and stady-state PK of GSK2118436 HPMC capsules alone and in combination with GSK1120212 dosed orally. (mdanderson.org)
  • This study will test the relationship for single doses of oCRH in normal volunteers and patients with disorders of the HPA axis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study seeks to explore these clinical applications by determining the dose-response relationship for single doses of ovine CRH (oCRH) in normal volunteers and in patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The goal of this clinical research study is to find the best dose of the drugs dabrafenib and trametinib that can be given together or alone in patients with advanced solid cancer that has a BRAF mutation. (mdanderson.org)
  • CRH is administered intravenously at doses up to 10 pg/kg, given as a bolus or up to 1 ug/kg/b as a continuous infusion lasting up to 24 hours. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Secondary: To determine the single dose and steady state PK of GSK2118436 metabolites using HPMC capsules. (mdanderson.org)
  • To determine single dose and steady-state PK of GSK1120212. (mdanderson.org)
  • To evaluate the pharmacodynamic response in BRAF mutant CRC-Pharmacodynamic cohort after treatment with GSK2118436 and GSK1120212. (mdanderson.org)
  • To explore relationships between GSK2118436, GSK1120212 PK, MAPK signalling inhibition and clinical endpoints. (mdanderson.org)
  • Typically, different doses are recommended for children 6 years and under, children aged 6 to 12 years, and persons 12 years and older, but outside of those ranges the guidance is slim. (wikipedia.org)
  • To evaluate differences in steroid concentrations induced by different doses and routes of administration of progesterone. (diva-portal.org)
  • Different doses of progesterone, given vaginally or orally, were added sequentially during the last 14 days of each treatment cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • Exactly how to quantify the dose of exercise, and how different doses influence cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, or metabolic outcomes, are among the most important current issues in exercise science (5, 6) . (annals.org)
  • Currently metabolic networks (e.g. folate metabolism) are being used to develop a deeper understanding of the functional relationships between genetic variation and trait variation, and of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variables interact to produce phenotypes. (duke.edu)
  • Together with sex it explains 11% of the between-subject variability in apparent oral clearance, but predictions could potentially be improved if additional alleles causing reduced drug metabolism were identified. (kb.se)
  • The effect of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids on collagen metabolism. (exrx.net)
  • An overview with emphasis on pharmacokinetics and effects on oxidative drug metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Enzyme-substrate binding is a way to alter the production or metabolism of key endogenous chemicals, for example aspirin irreversibly inhibits the enzyme prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase) thereby preventing inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors may exist which would alter metabolism or drug action itself, and a patient's immediate status may also affect indicated dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, HCC therapy is hampered by the fact that the liver is central for xenobiotic metabolism resulting in rapid modifications and efflux of drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 8 This is of particular concern because a substantial number of children with hypertension have underlying systemic diseases that might influence metabolism, dosing, efficacy, and safety. (ahajournals.org)
  • To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ESL when used as an add-on treatment for people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. (cochrane.org)
  • Dose regression analysis showed evidence that ESL reduced seizure frequency with an increase in efficacy with increasing doses of ESL. (cochrane.org)
  • To maximise therapeutic efficacy, sufficient antibody doses should be administered to ensure the saturation of antigen targets by therapeutic antibodies in all patients. (springer.com)
  • The efficacy of this class of drugs has been demonstrated in the treatment of a number of acid-related gastrointestinal diseases, in particular, gastroesophageal reflux and ulcer disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • We aimed to establish a human model of EMT to examine drug efficacy and specificity in HCC progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most remarkably, combined treatment with doxorubicin and sorafenib caused increased susceptibility of both HCC cell types resulting in enhanced drug efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, this EMT model of human HCC allows the identification of molecular mechanisms and the assessment of therapeutic drug efficacy during liver cancer progression in preclinical studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and dose-response relationship of fosinopril in children aged 6 to 16 years with hypertension or high-normal blood pressure with an associated medical condition requiring treatment. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9,10 This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and dose-response relationship of fosinopril in hypertensive children. (ahajournals.org)
  • Providing public access to clinical information on the safety and efficacy of drugs and on the safety and effectiveness of medical devices can enable independent re-analyses of data, foster new research questions, and benefit Canadians by helping them make informed decisions about their health. (canada.ca)
  • drug monitoring (TDM) is essential for tacrolimus to optimize dosage and prevent adverse reactions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Prescription drug dosage is based typically on body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs come with a recommended dose in milligrams or micrograms per kilogram of body weight, and that is used in conjunction with the patient's body weight to determine a safe dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In single dosage scenarios, the patient's body weight and the drug's recommended dose per kilogram are used to determine a safe one-time dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medication underdosing occurs commonly when physicians write prescriptions for a dosage that is correct for a certain time, but fails to increase the dosage as the patient needs (i.e. weight based dosing in children, or increasing dosages of chemotherapy drugs if a patient's condition worsens). (wikipedia.org)
  • The correct dosage for a patient is dependent on their individual reaction to both chemicals, and therefore the dosing must be continually adjusted once treatment is initiated to find the right balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recommended dosage of ANTHIM in adult patients is a single dose of 16 mg/kg administered intravenously over 90 minutes (1 hour and 30 minutes) [see Administration ]. (rxlist.com)
  • In clinical pharmacology , dose refers to dosage or amount of dose administered to a person [ citation needed ] , whereas exposure means the time-dependent concentration (often in the circulatory blood or plasma) or concentration-derived parameters such as AUC (area under the concentration curve) and C max (peak level of the concentration curve) of the drug after its administration [ citation needed ] . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the concept that a given dose of an antineoplastic compound would destroy a certain fraction of tumor cells, the efficiency of tumor chemotherapy, to a great extent, is dependent on the dosage of drugs and higher doses are supposed to be more effective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lack of quantitative information about the drug exposure-response relationship has resulted in empirical dosage regimens for use of NPX in RA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In drugs where multiple doses of treatment are needed in a day, the physician must take into account information regarding the total amount of the drug which is safe to use in one day, and how that should be broken up into intervals for the most effective treatment for the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dose-response relationships between antimicrobial use (log 2 DDDA/Y) and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) predicted probabilities in pigs (A) and humans (B), the Netherlands, 2011-2013. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the new data also showed that some DIPG cells develop resistance to the drug, which means it will likely need to be combined with other drugs to achieve the best results in humans. (stanford.edu)
  • The drugs were chosen because they were thought to have possible effects against brain tumors and were already used in humans or were being developed for human use. (stanford.edu)
  • To examine selectivity of tolerated doses of an inhibitor of the inducible COX-2 in humans, we examined the effects of celecoxib on indices of COX-1-dependent platelet thromboxane (Tx) A 2 and on systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Exactly assessing tumor response to different dose of chemotherapy would help to tailor therapy for individual patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study was to determine the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of tumor vascular response to different dose cisplatin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significant decreases in tumor normalized perfusion parameters were observed on day 3 in the high dose group and on day 7 in the low dose group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dynamic CEUS for quantification of tumor perfusion could be used to evaluate tumor vascular response to different dose of chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumor in order to boost the effect of anti-cancer therapy is always under controversy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, exactly assessing tumor response to different dose of chemotherapy is urgently needed, which could not only be helpful to tailor therapy for individual patients, but also avoid wasting of medical resource. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ultrasound is an attractive imaging technique for assessment tumor response to treatment because it can be repeated without exposing the patient or animal to any risk of radiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of our study was to measure the dose-response relationship in cisplatin-treated breast tumor xenografts by using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For the first time, scientists have identified an existing drug that slows the growth of the deadliest childhood brain tumor. (stanford.edu)
  • The drug restricted the tumor's growth in a lab dish and improved the survival time of mice that had the tumor implanted into their brains, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine , in collaboration with colleagues at other institutions. (stanford.edu)
  • The drug repairs a portion of the cellular machinery now known to be defective in DIPG tumor cells, the new research showed. (stanford.edu)
  • Of the 83 drugs, only a small number showed promise in slowing tumor cells' growth. (stanford.edu)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), both nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors, are commonly used medications for the relief of acute and chronic pain associated with a wide range of medical conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The recommended initial dose for acute hyperammonemia is 100 mg/kg/day to 250 mg/kg/day. (rxlist.com)
  • Acute renal failure has been associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy children. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • High doses of intravenous methotrexate, a necessary component of chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, is known to cause asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adverse drug events (ADEs) impose a major clinical and cost burden on acute hospital services. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A substantial body of high-quality evidence exists describing the effectiveness of various drugs for the treatment of acute migraine. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis and dissemination of this information may help correct the underuse or misuse of acute drug treatment strategies for migraine headache. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this Technical Review is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other prospective, comparative clinical trials of self-administered drug treatments for the acute, episodic treatment of migraine headaches. (nih.gov)
  • Studies of parenteral treatments ordinarily administered in a clinical setting will be covered in a companion report (Parenteral drug treatments for acute migraine headache). (nih.gov)
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Pharmacology: Drug Regulation and Approval 1. (majortests.com)
  • 1967) noted that clinical syndromes vary from a mild euphoric feeling of relaxation at low doses (25 micrograms per kilogram) to an intensive hallucinogenic-like experience at high doses (250 micrograms per kilogram). (druglibrary.org)
  • Over-the-counter medications are typically accompanied by a set of instructions directing the patient to take a certain small dose, followed by another small dose if their symptoms don't subside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dosing should be titrated based on individual patient plasma ammonia levels and clinical symptoms. (rxlist.com)
  • Metronidazole, an antibiotic used to treat aerobic and protozoal infections, has been known at high doses to produce neurologic symptoms associated with toxic leukoencephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with severe symptoms or lack of response to first-line therapies should be referred to a psychiatrist. (aafp.org)
  • To be considered for this review, studies were required to be prospective, controlled trials of self-administered drug treatments aimed at the relief of symptoms of individual episodes of headache in patients with migraine. (nih.gov)
  • ICCDDPTD 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Clinical Drug Development Process and Trial Design . (waset.org)
  • Help us be a 2020 "Top Rated Nonprofit", and spread accurate info about psychoactive drugs, health, culture, & policies. (erowid.org)
  • Various chemotherapy drugs have shown increased risk of cancer patients developing leukoencephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been over 200 clinical trials of chemotherapy drugs for DIPG, and none have shown any survival benefit," said Michelle Monje , MD, PhD, assistant professor of neurology at Stanford and a senior author of the paper. (stanford.edu)
  • In the new study, the research team screened 16 DIPG cell lines derived from patients' tumors against 83 possible chemotherapy drugs, exposing cells to small samples of each drug. (stanford.edu)
  • In conclusion, it is important that cardiologists, who are not among those physicians frequently prescribing NSAIDs, have a particular responsibility to have up-to-date, thoughtfully synthesized information about the CV risks of these drugs, especially when administered to patients receiving low-dose aspirin for cardioprotection. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the risk of developing upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a retrospective (historical) cohort study was performed, using a computerized data base including 1980 billing data from all Medicaid patients in the states of Michigan and Minnesota. (rti.org)
  • Objective To evaluate whether prenatal use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. (bmj.com)
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs in the developed world 1 - 3 and are often used by pregnant women. (bmj.com)
  • Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis is thought to account for both the therapeutic and adverse effects associated with the administration of conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ( 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • The effect produced by a drug varies with the concentration that is present at its site of action and usually approaches a maximum value beyond which a further increase in concentration is no more effective. (britannica.com)
  • There are sequential evaluation methods for binary response variables used to determine the concentration or dose associated with the 50% point of the dose-response curve. (scielo.br)
  • Impact of POR and CYP3A5 Polymorphisms on Trough Concentration to Dose Ratio of Tacrolimus in the Early Post-Operative Period Following Kidney Transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Whether a drug is ingested orally, injected into a muscle or vein, absorbed through a mucus membrane, or any of the other types of administration routes, affects how quickly the substance will be metabolized by the body and thus effects the concentration of the active ingredient(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration leading to 50% maximal response was 17.3±1.3 μg/mL. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pharmacodynamics places particular emphasis on dose-response relationships, that is, the relationships between drug concentration and effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle, a pharmacologist would aim for a target plasma concentration of the drug for a desired level of response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food does not affect the extent of pramipexole absorption, although the time of maximum plasma concentration (T max ) is increased by about 1 hour when the drug is taken with a meal. (nih.gov)
  • A new international research study indicates that drugs commonly used to treat allergies, insomnia, and anxiety can negatively impact memory and concentration among older adults. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • It is in the morphinan class of medications with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at lower doses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because children appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of fosinopril than adults, starting doses for children should be ≤0.1 mg/kg. (ahajournals.org)
  • In a dose-escalation study, patients add weekly PEG-Intron to their antiretroviral therapy for up to 6 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An integrated nano-scale approach to MEDICINE which involves concurrent diagnosis, drug delivery, therapy, and monitoring of therapeutic response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, when patients with such variants are treated with drugs outside of their approved label, successes and failures of targeted therapy are not systematically collected or shared. (nature.com)
  • In a US Medicaid population, PPIs accounted for 5.6% of the net pharmacy expenditures and ranked first in expenditures among all drug therapy classes during the 12 months before the implementation of the PPI prior-authorization policy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Augmenting SSRI therapy with an atypical antipsychotic is effective in some patients with OCD who have inadequate response to SSRI therapy. (aafp.org)
  • Because therapy with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets is initiated at a low dose and gradually titrated upward according to clinical tolerability to obtain the optimum therapeutic effect, adjustment of the initial dose based on gender, weight, or age is not necessary. (nih.gov)
  • Background Observational studies and randomized controlled trials have yielded inconsistent findings about the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and the risk of pneumonia. (cmaj.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to summarize the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and the risk of pneumonia in observational studies and randomized controlled trials. (cmaj.ca)
  • Some drugs produce their effects by interaction with membrane lipids . (britannica.com)
  • ED 50 values provide a useful way of comparing the potencies of drugs that produce physiologically similar effects at different concentrations. (britannica.com)
  • When a drug is used therapeutically, it is important to understand the margin of safety that exists between the dose needed for the desired effect and the dose that produces unwanted and possibly dangerous side effects. (britannica.com)
  • In general, the narrower this margin, the more likely it is that the drug will produce unwanted effects. (britannica.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists hostility, anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts as possible side effects of this medication. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Given these potential adverse effects, clinicians should use caution in prescribing acid-suppressive drugs for patients at risk. (cmaj.ca)
  • Dose-response curves may illustrate the relationship of these metabolic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs and Addiction Drugs have many effects on the body and mind. (majortests.com)
  • However, toxic leukoencephalopathy induced by drug abuse or environmental toxins have had more damaging side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcomes investigated included 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, treatment withdrawal, adverse effects , and drug interactions. (cochrane.org)
  • Dextromethorphan and its major metabolite, dextrorphan, also block the NMDA receptor at high doses, which produces effects similar to other dissociative anesthetics such as ketamine, nitrous oxide, and phencyclidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects of dextromethorphan at normal therapeutic doses can include: body rash/itching (see above) nausea vomiting drowsiness dizziness constipation diarrhea sedation confusion nervousness closed-eye hallucination A rare side effect is respiratory depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Debonnel G, Saint-Andre E, Hebert C, de Montigny C, Lavoie N, Blier P. Differential physiological effects of a low dose and high doses of venlafaxine in major depression. (springer.com)
  • Drugs, Society and Human Behavior provides the latest information on drug use and its effects on society as well as on the individual. (mheducation.com)
  • Pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both together influence dosing, benefit, and adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 7 main drug actions: stimulating action through direct receptor agonism and downstream effects depressing action through direct receptor agonism and downstream effects (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The widest class of drugs act as ligands that bind to receptors that determine cellular effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undesirable effects of a drug include: Increased probability of cell mutation (carcinogenic activity) A multitude of simultaneous assorted actions which may be deleterious Interaction (additive, multiplicative, or metabolic) Induced physiological damage, or abnormal chronic conditions The therapeutic window is the amount of a medication between the amount that gives an effect (effective dose) and the amount that gives more adverse effects than desired effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnitude of response, dose dependency, time course, effects of sex and age, and response to switching from haloperidol to olanzapine are assessed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • ActRI mRNA levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner by activin-A with the maximal effect observed at the dose of 10 ng/ml.Time course studies revealed that activin-A had maximal effects on ActRI mRNA levels at 6 hours after treatment.In addition, inhibin-A inhibited basal, as well as activin-A-induced ActRI mRNA levels. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of activin-A on ActRI mRNA levels was blocked by follistatin, an activin binding protein, in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • At the doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml, follistatin-288 completely blocked the effects of activin-A on the ActRI mRNA levels (Fig. 5). (nih.gov)
  • Selective publication: studies showing significant effects of drug were published as stand alone publications more often than studies with non-significant results. (bmj.com)
  • For multivariate analysis multiple logistic regression was performed for constipation with the number of drugs, use of drugs with known constipation side effects, and each drug class (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) level 4) as independent variables. (mdpi.com)
  • 0.001) and the usage of drugs with known constipation adverse effects (odds ratio 2.21, p = 0.009). (mdpi.com)
  • These findings suggest that constipation is associated with the number of drugs used, particularly those with constipation adverse-effects, in the elderly of GWS. (mdpi.com)
  • Effects of low-dose recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on insulin sensitivity, growth hormone and glucagon levels in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. (tripdatabase.com)
  • A logistic growth function accounting for natural paw growth and an indirect response model for paw edema and drug effects (inhibition of k in ) was applied. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Serious adverse cardiovascular (CV) events have been reported with NSAID use, but unfortunately, definitive evidence regarding the precise CV risk associated with these drugs, as a class and individually, is lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have investigated sex as a risk factor for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and found that women are more likely to experience ADRs than men. (springer.com)
  • Martin RM, Biswas PN, Freemantle SN, Pearce GL, Mann RD. Age and sex distribution of suspected adverse drug reactions to newly marketed drugs in general practice in England: analysis of 48 cohort studies. (springer.com)
  • Sex-related differences in hospital admissions attributed to adverse drug reactions in the Netherlands. (springer.com)
  • Drici MD, Clement N. Is gender a risk factor for adverse drug reactions? (springer.com)
  • Vilhelmsson A, Svensson T, Meeuwisse A, Carlsten A. What can we learn from consumer reports on psychiatric adverse drug reactions with antidepressant medication? (springer.com)
  • No differences between men and women in adverse drug reactions related to psychotropic drugs: a survey from France, Italy and Spain. (springer.com)
  • A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a physician's use of electronic medication reconciliation software when writing a patient's discharge prescription will prevent adverse drug ev. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Medication reconciliation (MR) at hospital admission, transfer, and discharge has been designated as a required hospital practice to reduce adverse drug events. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adverse drug events and medication problems in hospital at home patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the incidence of adverse drug events in these programs is unknown. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study describes adverse drug events an. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Prospective validation of clinical criteria to identify emergency department patients at high risk for adverse drug events. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adverse drug events cause or contribute to one in nine emergency department presentations in North America, and are often misdiagnosed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bivariate associations between constipation and number of drug use and number of drug use with constipation adverse effect were compared. (mdpi.com)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with UGI bleeding, although the magnitude of the increased risk is reassuringly small. (rti.org)
  • Naproxen (NPX) is a frequently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • To be eligible for the trial, patients have to have exhausted or declined standard therapies, and have malignancies with potentially actionable variants for which no approved anticancer drugs are available. (nature.com)
  • Here we show an overall rate of clinical benefit-defined as complete or partial response, or as stable disease beyond 16 weeks-of 34% in 215 treated patients, comprising 136 patients who received targeted therapies and 79 patients who received immunotherapy. (nature.com)
  • The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (drugs.com)
  • Many drugs work not by combining with specific receptors but by binding to other proteins, particularly enzymes and transport proteins . (britannica.com)
  • Compared with the properties of homomeric rho1 and heteromeric rho1rho2 receptors formed in a heterologous expression system, these results suggested that there was a greater contribution from the rho1 subunit in the GABA(C) receptor-mediated response of diabetic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Upon drug binding, receptors can elicit their normal action (agonist), blocked action (antagonist), or even action opposite to normal (inverse agonist). (wikipedia.org)
  • They assessed the results of 162 experiments on drugs that inherently had the potential to bind to four different receptors in the brain. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Of special interest is the possibility that acid-suppressive drugs could increase susceptibility to respiratory infections because these drugs increase gastric pH, thus allowing bacterial colonization. (cmaj.ca)
  • 6 , 7 Several previous studies have shown that treatment with acid-suppressive drugs might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections 8 and community-acquired pneumonia in adults 6 , 7 and children. (cmaj.ca)
  • Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculating drug dosages for treatment for more serious diseases like cancer is commonly done through measuring the Body Surface Area of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, marijuana is patently safer than many commonly prescribed drugs. (majortests.com)
  • ADRs more reported in women than men when using SSRIs were usually dose-related ADRs or commonly occurring ADRs. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the anti-HIV activity of PMPA prodrug, as demonstrated by increases in CD4 cell counts and decreases in HIV RNA, when administered orally as a single dose and daily for 4 weeks to HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 or more cells/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ANTHIM is supplied as 600 mg/6 mL in single-dose vials for intravenous infusion. (rxlist.com)
  • Our study supports the need for caution when using intramuscularly administered, abruptly increasing, high-dose neuroleptics, particularly in mentally retarded or agitated patients, regardless of environmental temperature. (wiley.com)
  • If the dose is tolerated, patients are added and if safety criteria are met, patients are enrolled in the next higher dose level. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients initially receive the next lower PEG-Intron dose to the optimal dose identified in Cohort I [AS PER AMENDMENT 07/23/01: or 1 microg/kg if the optimal dose proves to be 1 microg/kg]. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If this dose is safely tolerated, additional patients are added. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If this dose level meets safety criteria, patients are enrolled to receive the optimal dose level. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will test the relationship for single doses of oCRH in normal volunteers and patients with disorders of the HPA axis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study seeks to explore these clinical applications by determining the dose-response relationship for single doses of ovine CRH (oCRH) in normal volunteers and in patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of long-term biweekly administration of 1 of 2 doses of aerosol pentamidine when used as a prophylactic agent in patients who have had multiple episodes of AIDS associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will be randomized to either Balanced Dose or Low Dose RTV treatment arms. (nih.gov)
  • Patients in the Balanced Dose Arm will receive RTV and IDV in approximately equal doses. (nih.gov)
  • Patients will have intensive pharmacokinetic analysis at Week 4 (or 2 weeks after a stable dose of study drugs has been reached) and Week 16. (nih.gov)
  • to determine the ED90 (minimum effective dose in 90% of patients) of sugammadex for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in patients with grade III obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. (scielo.br)
  • Measures of weight correction to indicate the best scheme of drug administration in obese patients have been proposed 4 - 6 . (scielo.br)
  • Results in patients with grade III obesity submitted to laparoscopic bariatric surgery under NMB indicated an optimal dose of 2mg/kg of sugammadex based on 140% of the IBW for patients with moderate neuromuscular blockade 14 . (scielo.br)
  • However, a prospective observational study found that 23.4% of patients required a second dose of sugammadex to reverse moderate NMB over a two-minute time interval when a dose of 2mg/kg was used in comparison with the time of reversion between non-obese subjects 15 . (scielo.br)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective dose of sugammadex in 90% of obese patients (ED 90) required to complete the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockage using the up-and-down design of biased coin (BCD) in patients with grade III obesity submitted to bariatric surgery. (scielo.br)
  • Dose optimisation of tacrolimus with therapeutic drug monitoring and CYP3A5 polymorphism in myasthenia gravis patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, patients have to take immunosuppressive drugs to. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Based on limited data in 22 patients receiving maintenance treatment with Carbaglu® in a retrospective case series, maintenance doses were usually less than 100 mg/kg/day. (rxlist.com)
  • ANTHIM is indicated in adult and pediatric patients for the treatment of inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs. (rxlist.com)
  • The recommended dose for pediatric patients is based on weight as shown in Table 1 below. (rxlist.com)
  • We therefore initiated the Drug Rediscovery protocol, an adaptive, precision-oncology trial that aims to identify signals of activity in cohorts of patients, with defined tumour types and molecular variants, who are being treated with anticancer drugs outside of their approved label. (nature.com)
  • The potential of the Drug Rediscovery protocol is illustrated by the identification of a successful cohort of patients with microsatellite instable tumours who received nivolumab (clinical benefit rate of 63%), and a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer with relatively low mutational load who experienced only limited clinical benefit from immunotherapy. (nature.com)
  • Patients with OCD require higher SSRI dosages than for other indications, and the treatment response time is typically longer. (aafp.org)
  • But serum RBP declined by about 75% in the early enrollers receiving 300 mg a day of the drug, and these patients had the smallest mean increase in lesion size. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Dose-response relationships of inhaled insulin delivered via the Aerodose insulin inhaler and subcutaneously injected insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Transport proteins are important in many processes, and they may be targets for drug action. (britannica.com)
  • PEG-Intron is an experimental drug that works differently than other anti-HIV medications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The medications that contribute to drug-induced depression might surprise you. (everydayhealth.com)
  • 1 One group of medications in widespread use is acid-suppressive drugs, which represent the second leading category of medication worldwide, with sales totalling US$26.9 billion in 2005. (cmaj.ca)
  • The greater the quantity delivered, the larger the dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with most drugs, the larger the dose taken, the greater the psychopharmacologic effect. (druglibrary.org)
  • Prostaglandins (PGs) are autacoidal lipid mediators of importance in physiological responses, inflammation and thrombosis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. (drugs.com)
  • Some prescription drugs can cause or contribute to the development of depression and other mood disorders. (everydayhealth.com)
  • What do certain asthma, acne, malaria, and smoking-cessation prescription drugs have in common? (everydayhealth.com)
  • Depression as a side effect of prescription drugs is widespread and increasingly gaining attention. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Can Physicians Spot Prescription Drug Misuse? (medpagetoday.com)
  • The relationship between prescription drug usage and constipation has not been explored. (mdpi.com)
  • The prescription drugs you're taking may be taking a toll on your memory. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • A drug of this type is the antifungal agent amphotericin B , which binds to a specific molecule ( ergosterol ) found in fungal cells. (britannica.com)
  • Responses of the GABA(C) receptor, the predominant GABA receptor on rat rod bipolar cells, exhibited a greater sensitivity to GABA, larger maximum current responses, slower response kinetics, and a smaller single channel conductance among diabetic cells relative to those recorded from normal controls. (nih.gov)
  • Like mammalian hair cells, zebrafish hair cells are sensitive to damage from ototoxic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (jneurosci.org)
  • A dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy was observed in tumour cells following cisplatin treatment, as demonstrated by up-regulation of autophagy-inducing protein beclin-1 and subsequent appearance of acridine orange-stained acidic autophagic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that cisplatin-triggered activation of AMPK and subsequent suppression of mTOR activity can induce an autophagic response that protects tumour cells from cisplatin-mediated apoptotic death. (nih.gov)
  • The team tracked six of the drugs' dose-response relationship on DIPG cells and selected panobinostat for further study. (stanford.edu)
  • For information on excessive intake of pharmaceutical agents, see Drug overdose. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the drug is consumed in a new setting, much of the conditioned tolerance will disappear and the addict will be more like ly to overdose. (erowid.org)
  • Volunteers received doses of 100, 400, or 800 mg of celecoxib or 800 mg of a nonselective inhibitor, ibuprofen. (pnas.org)
  • Leukoencephalopathy may result from the inhalation, intravenous injection, or ingestion of substance abuse drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 Drug shortage bulletins have been issued repeatedly for intravenous PPIs in the United States. (ahajournals.org)
  • These observations have led to the hypothesis that COX-2 expression mediates the enhanced prostanoid release, which characterizes the inflammatory response ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Is the Extrapolated Adult Dose of Fosinopril Safe and Effective in Treating Hypertensive Children? (ahajournals.org)
  • The primary objective of the dose-response phase was to determine whether low (0.1 mg/kg), medium (0.3 mg/kg), or high (0.6 mg/kg) doses of fosinopril based on established adult dosing affect trough seated systolic blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • A useful measure is the median effective dose , ED 50 , which is defined as the dose producing a response that is 50 percent of the maximum obtainable. (britannica.com)
  • This is a serious problem, for it can result in a normally effective dose of a drug being ineffective or toxic in other circumstances. (britannica.com)
  • In clinical trials of drugs the role of the sponsor is especially important. (bmj.com)
  • Inpatient tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) lacks standardized guidelines. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Due to narrow therapeutic range of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, therapeutic drug mo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For bacterial or viral agents, dose typically refers to the amount of the pathogen required to infect a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEG-Intron has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hepatitis C in adults, but in this study, it is being used as an investigational agent for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to find a combination of RTV and IDV that is safe, well tolerated, and produces drug levels in the blood of children that are comparable to effective drug levels in the blood of adults. (nih.gov)
  • TACE represents an intraarterial administration of therapeutic drugs combined with embolizing agents which leads to a more selective distribution and a higher retention time of therapeutics within HCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Panobinostat was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of a form of blood cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are critical to its effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prespecified subgroup analyses by renal recovery, baseline chronic kidney disease, preadmission drug regimen, and HbA 1c were performed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods and Results- Under physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.35, 1.25 mmol/L Ca 2+ ), there was a dose-dependent decrease in contractile force in ventricular trabeculae isolated from end-stage failing human hearts superfused with pantoprazole. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. (jneurosci.org)