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  • responses
  • The neurobiology of reward-seeking behavioral systems is less well understood in invertebrates, but in many diverse invertebrate groups, reward learning and responses to food rewards also involve dopamine. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we discuss the evidence that dopamine affects reward responses across the Nematoda, Vertebrata, Platyhelminthes and Mollusca, representing highly divergent phyla. (frontiersin.org)
  • behaviors
  • Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. (frontiersin.org)
  • medial
  • Furthermore, appetitive LTM requires activity in the dorsal paired medial neuron and mushroom body α′β′ neuron circuit during the first hour after training and mushroom body αβ neuron output during retrieval, suggesting that appetitive middle-term memory and LTM are mechanistically linked. (jneurosci.org)
  • sensory
  • The scientists have now been able to show that complex or opposing sensory information is processed in the mushroom body. (healthcanal.com)
  • The new results show that the mushroom body has an additional function: it evaluates sensory impressions independently of learned content and memory to allow instantaneous decisions. (healthcanal.com)
  • centre
  • When the information about the simultaneous occurrence of CO 2 and food odours is transmitted to the "learning centre" in the mushroom body, an immediate change of behaviour occurs, but not a permanent change with regard to the negative evaluation of CO 2 . (healthcanal.com)
  • Cellular-resolution imaging of energy metabolism reveals a concurrent elevation of energy consumption in neurons of the mushroom body, the fly's major memory centre. (espci.fr)
  • species
  • Dopamine occurs in many species, including humans, in connection with positive values. (healthcanal.com)
  • More recent comparative studies with diverse species scattered across a divergent range of animal phyla have also repeatedly demonstrated roles for the biogenic amines, and especially dopamine, in reward-seeking and reward learning. (frontiersin.org)