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  • acyl
  • Its mode of operation, similar to fatty acid synthase (FAS), engages different enzymatic functions: acyltransferase (AT) catalyzes the attachment of a substrate to the acyl carrier protein (ACP) of the PKS, ketosynthase (KS) catalyzes the condensation of two substrates, and ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH) and enoylreductase (ER) catalyze the stepwise processing of the polyketide intermediate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • polyketide
  • In iterative type I PKS, which is typical for fungi, the same set of domains (called a module) is used for each round of polyketide elongation and processing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic
  • Our phylogenetic analysis of type I PKSs in algae supports an evolutionary scenario whereby integrated AT domains were displaced to yield trans -AT PKSs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Expression of the genes, affected by nitrogen and carbon sources and pH, was also controlled by another transcription activator, CRG1, previously shown to regulate cercosporin production and resistance. (wiley.com)
  • Analysis of their domains revealed that most PKS genes of D. helianthi are reducing PKSs, whereas only eight lacked reducing domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations of mitochondrial carrier genes involved in mitochondrial functions other than oxidative phosphorylation are responsible for carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier deficiency, HHH syndrome, aspartate/glutamate isoform 2 deficiency, Amish microcephaly, and neonatal myoclonic epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans express the following two aconitase isozymes: Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate
  • Here, we show that independent evolutionary events affecting the substrate specificity of the microcystin biosynthetic pathway have resulted in convergence on a rare [ D -Leu 1 ] microcystin-LR chemical variant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PDIs, which are ubiquitous thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases in all eukaryotic cells, directly donate disulfides to substrate proteins by means of thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. (hindawi.com)
  • Disulfide bond formation involves electron transfer from the substrate to a disulfide carrier protein (e.g. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast with the majority of iron-sulfur proteins that function as electron carriers, the iron-sulfur cluster of aconitase reacts directly with an enzyme substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid changes in the catalytic domains or those in contact with substrate or cofactors were the main cause of these variations of D-BP deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • L405 (leucine located at residue 405) located in the substrate binding domain of the hydratase 2 unit, plays an important role in binding CoA ester moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are modular proteins that operate in an assembly line fashion to bind, modify, and link amino acids. (rcsb.org)
  • Specifically, part of exon 2 and exons 3-7 of the GHR gene will translate to amino acids that make up the extracellular domain of GHR. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the extracellular domain alone, the polypeptide consists of 246 amino acids and is roughly 60 kDA in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated amino acid can then be transferred to the enzyme bound 4'-phosphopantetheine of the carrier protein with the expulsion of AMP from the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In certain domains you will find modification subdomains, such as the E subdomain seen in domains 1 and 4 in tyrocidine, which will generate the D-configured amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acceptor domain contains a 10 amino acid code known as the Nonribosomal Code (NRPS code). (wikipedia.org)
  • For InvAs from Paxillus involutus, a common amino acid motif was also found in the thioesterase domain (last domain) that supported biochemical data of either the enzyme being functional to complete atromentin formation or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other amino acid changes were seen to alter the dimerization of the protein, leading to improper folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Here we show that the three proteins from the undecylprodigiosin and pyoluteorin biosynthetic pathways are sufficient for the conversion of L-proline to pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-S-PCP. (mendeley.com)
  • Disulfide transfer pathways that function in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and chloroplasts of plants play critical roles in the development of protein storage organelles and the biogenesis of chloroplasts, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the various disulfide transfer pathways involved in oxidative protein folding in the ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of plants. (hindawi.com)
  • cysteine
  • A cysteine specific NRPS module located on CurF follows after cyclopropyl ring formation, and due to the activity of a cyclizing condensation domain, forms a thiazole ring attached to the cylcopropyl moiety from previous reactions in the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • have considered MgtE to function by a channel mechanism, providing evidence that the MgtE cytosolic domain acts as a Mg2+ sensor to regulate gating of the pore in response to the intracellular Mg2+ concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial dynamics in different cells are understood by the way in which these proteins regulate and bind to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • The genomes of higher plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana , Glycine max (soybean), Oryza sativa (rice), and Zea mays (maize), encode approximately 10 to 20 members of the PDI family, which show wide variation in the organization of their thioredoxin (TRX)-fold domains [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • structural
  • Selective molecular communication between disulfide-generating enzymes and disulfide carrier proteins, which reflects the molecular and structural diversity of disulfide carrier proteins, is key to the efficient transfer of disulfides to specific sets of substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • DBP deficiency can be divided into three types: type I, characterized by a deficiency in both the hydratase and dehydrogenase units of D-BP type II, in which only the hydratase unit is non-functional type III, with only a deficiency in the dehydrogenase unit Type I deficient patients showed a large structural modification to the D-BP as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungal
  • Malassezia are also thought to contribute to the common skin disease atopic eczema by host sensitization to fungal protein allergens ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • cluster
  • Expression of four ORFs located on the two distal ends of the cluster did not correlate with cercosporin biosynthesis and did not show regulation by CTB8, suggesting that the biosynthetic cluster was limited to CTB1-8 . (wiley.com)
  • large amounts
  • They secrete large amounts of 10 kDa proteins called elicitins that can act as elicitors of plant defence mechanisms. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The developing endosperm cells of seeds actively synthesize large amounts of storage proteins that acquire disulfide bonds in the ER. (hindawi.com)
  • precursor
  • Precursor labeling studies of some of these natural products have shown that L-proline can serve as the biosynthetic precursor for these moieties, including those found in coumermycin A 1 , pyoluteorin, and one of the pyrroles of undecylprodigiosin. (mendeley.com)
  • In mouse and rat models, the extracellular domain is formed primarily through alternative splicing of the precursor GHR mRNA to form a mature transcript that translate GHBP alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • One of the chemokine, IL-8, has been shown to play a major role in the control of tumorigenesis most likely through regulation of angiogenesis in developing tumor ( 20 , 21 , 26 ). (rupress.org)
  • Current research suggests that the protein is associated with regulation of the GH supply in the circulatory system as well as GH receptor function. (wikipedia.org)