• Structure and chromosomal mapping of a highly polymorphic repetitive DNA sequence from the pseudoautosomal region of the mouse sex chromosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The copia, mdg1 and gypsy elements show evidence for a deficiency of insertions on the X chromosomes, a result consistent with selection against the mutational effects of insertions. (cambridge.org)
  • There is no strong evidence of a systematic accumulation of elements in the distal and proximal regions of the chromosomes where crossing over and ectopic exchanges are reduced. (cambridge.org)
  • Their utilization as molecular-cytogenetic markers, in combination with ribosomal DNA loci, allowed for the development of a system to identify the individual chromosomes of the Hieracium species, thus providing a basis for the future investigation of karyotype evolution in diploid hawkweeds and for exploring satDNA dynamics in hybrids and apomicts of allopolyploid origin. (springer.com)
  • Every cell in the body of every living organism contains DNA in threadlike structures called chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another variety of transposons, discovered in 2001, which can also potentially capture host DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation by the uptake of DNA is recognized to be a significant route of horizontal gene transfer among bacteria, and there is overwhelming evidence that horizontal gene transfer and recombination have been responsible for the recent resurgence of drug and antibiotic resistant infectious diseases. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Recombination is a much more powerful mutation way for DNA to change. (panspermia.org)
  • When two strings of similar DNA line up with each other and swap sections, it's called homologous recombination . (panspermia.org)
  • When shorter pieces of similar DNA line up to initiate a swap of longer, dissimilar pieces (of which the shorter pieces can be part), that's called site-specific recombination . (panspermia.org)
  • While DNA repair warrants the chemical integrity of DNA and protects it from metabolic and environmental mutagens, meiotic recombination and transposable element activity appear to counteract the molecular guardians of genome stability. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe approaches using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to validate and quantify somatic mosaic events contributed by transposable-element insertions, copy-number variants, and single-nucleotide variants. (springer.com)
  • Other LTR retrotransposons that are responsible for most mobile-element insertions in mice are the intracisternal A-particles (IAPs), early transposons (Etns), and mammalian LTR-retrotransposons (MaLRs). (slideplayer.com)
  • Particularly interesting is the finding that all identified lineage-specific SINE elements show a strong tendency to insert within or in very close proximity to the preexisting MIRs for their efficient integrations, suggesting that the MIR element is a hot spot for successive insertions of other SINEs. (deepdyve.com)
  • Relation between amount of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) gained/lost due to small indels (calculated as the total size of small insertions minus the total size of small deletions) per single nucleotide mutation and genome size, from direct estimation of insertion and deletion events in mutation studies. (els.net)
  • The P-element was discovered twice in a new species within one hundred years. (phys.org)
  • Therefore we can assume that transposable elements are transferred across the species faster than we thought. (phys.org)
  • Here, we applied satDNA repeatome elements derived from NGS data as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize the karyotypes of three diploid hawkweed species of the predominantly polyploid apomictic genus Hieracium , namely H. intybaceum , H. prenanthoides and H. alpinum . (springer.com)
  • Even without the extreme examples such as bladderwort we readily observe 10x variability in the amount of DNA between fairly recently separated species. (slashdot.org)
  • The chromosomal location of the mobile elements Rex3 and Rex6 in C. macropomum , P. mesopotamicus , and in the hybrid between these species enabled knowledge expansion and the generation of data on such mobile elements. (science.gov)
  • This is the first time anyone has shown that the L1 element, important in humans, has jumped between species. (eurasiareview.com)
  • The team also looked at the transfer of BovB elements between species. (eurasiareview.com)
  • The extent and causes of between‐species changes in transposable element activity should be characterised, to better understand the drivers of genome expansion. (els.net)
  • In this study, we use BovBs as a comparison to identify common characteristics of horizontally transferred elements in contemporary eukaryotic species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Figure 1 shows that both BovB and L1 elements are present in a diverse array of species including mammals, reptiles, fish, amphibians, arthropods and primitive species such as sea urchins and sea squirts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reader is challenged to view the role of movable DNA along historical roots from the levels of cells to populations to biological species integrating the accompanying molecular evolution of host, cell and genome interaction. (springer.com)
  • Last summer developmental biologist Gill Bejerano, then a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and now a professor at Stanford University, and his colleagues discovered that during vertebrate evolution, a novel retroposon-a DNA fragment, reverse-transcribed from RNA, that can insert itself anywhere in the genome-was exapted as an enhancer, a signal that increases a gene's transcription. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Toxic tau correlated with transcription of dormant transposable elements, both in the human brain and in transgenic fly models. (alzforum.org)
  • At the same time, working together with Assistant Professor Molly Hammel at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, the Dubnau lab discovered that human protein TDP-43 binds to the RNAs produced by transcription of transposable elements, and that this binding is selectively disrupted in brain tissue of patients with a type of dementia that frequently presents with TDP-43 pathology. (cshl.edu)
  • The significance of MURA's interaction with the TIRs of Mu elements is discussed in the context of what is known about the regulation and mechanisms of Mutator activities in maize. (asm.org)
  • TEs in Maize Figure 13.25Figure 2 : Colour variations in maize caused by DNA transposons. (slideplayer.com)
  • Transposable elements affect the color of maize kernels and are responsible for the purple-colored sectors and spots shown in this 1949 ear of maize from the McClintock collection. (nsf.gov)
  • The DNA methylation landscape of vertebrates is very particular compared to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free nucleic acids refer to the laboratory-produced nucleic acids transfected into cells or organisms, whether incorporated as transgenic DNA or not, and subsequently released into the environment by secretion, excretion, waste disposal, death, industrial processing, or carried by liquid streams, or in airborne dust and pollen. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • If DNA replicated perfectly every time, without errors, the only life-forms existing now would be those that existed about three billion years ago: single-cell organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Miotke L, Lau BT, Rumma RT, Ji HP (2014) High sensitivity detection and quantitation of DNA copy number and single nucleotide variants with single color droplet digital PCR. (springer.com)
  • Hence, GC content of a genome (GC G ), i.e., the molar ratio of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) in DNA, is one of the main parameters used to describe nucleotide composition and is frequently related to genome size [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis homologue SUVH4 is directly required for the maintenance of the DNA CpNpG and asymmetric methylation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • AC064840 AC064840 60405bp DNA HTG 23-APR-2000 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone T24C10, *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS ***, 11 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC064879 AC064879 109187bp DNA HTG 18-MAY-2000 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone T6A9, *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS ***, 1 ordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC066691 AC066691 83442bp DNA HTG 27-APR-2000 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I clone TAMU-T6J19, *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS ***, 1 ordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC067965 AC067965 63292bp DNA HTG 27-APR-2000 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone T28N5, *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS ***, 7 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • AC067971 AC067971 124659bp DNA HTG 27-APR-2000 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F10K1, *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS ***, 16 unordered pieces. (bio.net)
  • Finally, some DNA transposons actually will replicate themselves, with the copy then being inserted into the target site. (brighthub.com)
  • Transposons are also very useful to researchers as a means to alter DNA inside a living organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA, discussed elsewhere in this book, is as complex in structure as it is critically important in shaping the characteristics of the organism to which it belongs, and therefore it is not surprising that a subtle alteration in DNA can produce significant results. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A growing number of RIDLs have been experimentally defined, where TE-derived fragments of lncRNA act as RNA-, DNA-, and protein-binding domains. (nih.gov)
  • The silencing mechanism via DNA CpNpG methylation requires the targeting of chromomethylase CMT3 to methylated histones, probably through an interaction with an heterochromatin protein 1-like adapter. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This consists of DNA wound around a protein core composed of molecules each of four types of histone: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (flashcardmachine.com)