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  • PilO
  • It has also been suggested that the inner membrane TFP biogenesis proteins PilC, PilM, PilN and PilO are responsible for DNA transport across the cytoplasmic membrane, as mutations to these proteins promote accumulation of DNA in the periplasm [ 11 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • genomic
  • Here we report the development of a system for the facile and high-throughput genomic engineering of S. aureus using single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotide recombineering coupled with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated counterselection. (asm.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, using DNA from the N315 MRSA strain, we successfully transferred the full length SCCmecII element through natural transformation to a methicillin-sensitive strain, conferring methicillin resistance to the resulting S. aureus transformants. (jove.com)
  • induction
  • Results from in silico simulations and in vivo luciferase activities show that ComR concentration is the main limiting factor for the level of comX expression and controls the kinetics of spontaneous competence induction in strain LMD-9. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, streptococci use cell-cell communication systems to synchronize competence induction between individuals, allowing them to behave such as a multicellular organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • bacterial
  • To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of a clonally descended bacterial population undergoing HDT through transmission of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and genetic transformation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, this framework is able to explain both common properties of MGEs, and the seemingly paradoxical bacterial behaviours of transformation and cell-cell killing within clonally related populations, as the consequences of intragenomic conflict between self-replicating chromosomes and parasitic MGEs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • novel
  • We previously showed that a novel staphylococcal secondary sigma factor, SigH, was a likely key component for competence development, but the corresponding gene appeared to be cryptic as its expression could not be detected during growth under standard laboratory conditions. (jove.com)
  • Much recent research has emphasised the adaptive benefit of acquiring novel DNA, but here we argue instead that intragenomic conflict provides a coherent framework for understanding the evolutionary origins of HDT. (ox.ac.uk)
  • organisms
  • DNA translocation and TFP biogenesis are known to be functionally linked in Gram-negative bacteria [ 4 ], and TFP are essential for high levels of DNA transformation in most organisms [ 5 ], although the mechanistic details of both processes remain to be elucidated. (biochemj.org)
  • acquisition
  • Including the known bias of transformation toward the acquisition of shorter alleles into the model suggested it could be an effective means of counteracting the spread of MGEs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • molecules
  • In the crystal lattice, two molecules form a tandem dimer upon binding to adjacent sites on DNA. (jove.com)
  • Gene Expression
  • In addition, the DNA arrays produced will allow us to generate gene expression profiles of gonococci grown in a wide variety of conditions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Response
  • Upon binding of CSP to its membrane-associated receptor kinase ComD, a cascade of signaling events is initiated, leading to activation of the competence regulon by the response regulator ComE. (prolekare.cz)
  • type
  • A. pleuropneumoniae preferentially takes up DNA fragments containing the Apl -type USS over both H. influenzae and unrelated DNAs, and H. influenzae prefers its own USS over the Apl type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • major
  • They play a major role in several processes in Gram-negative pathogens including host cell adherence, biofilm formation, twitching motility and DNA transformation. (biochemj.org)