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  • Gene
  • Loss of BIN4 triggers an ATM- and ATR-dependent DNA damage response in postmitotic cells, and this response coincides with the upregulation of the cyclin B1;1 gene in the same cell types, suggesting a functional link between DNA damage response and endocycle control. (nih.gov)
  • proteins
  • 2014). GPCR activation causes a signal transduction cascade including activation of heterotrimeric G proteins and phospholipase C-2 (PLCB2), production of InsP3, and InsP3-dependent Ca2+ launch from your endoplasmic reticulum through InsP3 receptor type 3 (InsP3R3). (biographysoftware.com)
  • The degree of compaction results from the level of DNA-supercoiling and the presence of nucleoid-binding proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transcriptomic studies on the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae , which has a relatively small genome (∼2 Mb) and few nucleoid-binding proteins, have been performed under conditions of local and global changes in supercoiling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because TOP2A has been associated with several DNA metabolism proteins thought to play a role in ageing, it is possible that TOP2A itself is involved in human ageing, though further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. (senescence.info)
  • gyrA
  • In bacteria, topoisomerase II consists of two polypeptide subunits, gyrA and gyrB, which form a heterotetramer: (BA)2. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CC In the heterotetramer, GyrA contains the active site tyrosine that CC forms a transient covalent intermediate with DNA, while GyrB binds CC cofactors and catalyzes ATP hydrolysis. (genome.jp)
  • histone
  • The addition of histone H1, in stoichiometric amounts, to naked DNA or minichromosomes lessened the activity of topoisomerase II, and required 7-fold less for complete inhibition when the latter was used as the substrate. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Topoisomerases;nucleosomes;histone H1;unwinding;anti-tumor drugs. (iisc.ac.in)
  • relaxation
  • Based on its response to relaxation, the pneumococcal chromosome can be said to be organized into five types of domain: up-regulated, down-regulated, position-conserved non-regulated, position-variable non-regulated, and AT-rich. (frontiersin.org)
  • knotted DNA molecules
  • Using numerical simulations, we compare properties of knotted DNA molecules that are either torsionally relaxed or supercoiled. (epfl.ch)
  • isoform
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that topo IIα is the main isoform involved in mitotic processes. (biologists.org)
  • To investigate the cellular role of each topo II isoform individually, we transfected HeLa cells with siRNA (a short synthetic duplex of 21 nucleotides with 3′ overhangs of 2 nucleotides) targeted against either topo IIα or topo IIβ. (biologists.org)
  • Isoform 3: Heterotetramer of SPO11 and 2 TOP6BL chains. (genecards.org)
  • Mitoxantrone activated NFkappaB and stimulated IkappaBalpha degradation in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60 but not in the variant cells, HL60/MX2 cells, which lack the beta isoform of topoisomerase II and express a truncated alpha isoform that results in an altered subcellular distribution. (umassmed.edu)
  • duplex
  • An enzyme with bound DNA can admit a second DNA duplex through one set of jaws, transport it through the cleaved first duplex, and expel it through the other set of jaws. (nih.gov)
  • fragment
  • DNase I footprinting shows that gyrase protects 205 base pairs on a REP-containing DNA fragment enclosing the REP sequences. (nih.gov)
  • genome
  • Because REP sequences are numerous and found throughout the genome, we suggest they have physiological functions mediated through their interaction with gyrase, such as being sites of action for the maintenance of DNA supercoiling. (nih.gov)
  • Genome Research 2(7):1080-1090. (tolweb.org)
  • Binding
  • Binding effectiveness correlates directly with the number of REP sequences in the DNA. (nih.gov)