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  • grlA
  • Regarding resistance mechanisms, only one QRDR mutation in gyrA was found in all of the 10 mutants of E. coli and in 4 of the 10 mutants of P. aeruginosa , whereas mutations in both grlA and gyrA were found in 3 mutants and one mutation in grlA was found in 2 mutants among the 10 mutants of S. pseudintermedius . (biomedcentral.com)
  • strains
  • MPCs for S. pseudintermedius varied between the low-susceptible (16-128 μg/ml) and the high-susceptible strains (4-16 μg/ml) and were the most broadly distributed among the three species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PMID
  • DNA topoisomerases regulate the number of topological links between two DNA strands (i.e. change the number of superhelical turns) by catalysing transient single- or double-strand breaks, crossing the strands through one another, then resealing the breaks [ PMID: 7770916 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • and to disentangle intertwined DNA during mitosis [ PMID: 12042765 , PMID: 11395412 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • topoisomerases II, IV and VI) break double-strand DNA [ PMID: 12596227 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • resistance
  • These phenotypic and genotypic data comparisons in the phylogenetic species context suggest that the evolution of known S. enterica sublineages is mediated mostly by two mechanisms, (i) the loss of coding sequences with known metabolic functions, which leads to functional reduction, and (ii) the acquisition of horizontally transferred phage and plasmid DNA, which provides virulence and resistance functions and leads to increasing specialization. (asm.org)
  • S. enterica outbreaks, as well as individual cases of S. enterica infections, linked to various food sources, including animal products, fruits, and vegetables, can be caused by different S. enterica serovars and often involve multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes ( 4 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Molecular
  • This preparation of high molecular weight DNA is appropriate for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)* process and other molecular biology applications. (atcc.org)
  • mechanism
  • DNA topoisomerases: structure, function, and mechanism. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure and mechanism of DNA topoisomerase II. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Matches between S. enterica clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), part of a defense mechanism against invading plasmid and phage DNA, and plasmid and prophage regions suggest that CRISPR-mediated immunity could control short-term phenotype changes and mediate long-term sublineage evolution. (asm.org)
  • metabolism
  • The metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Grepafloxacin. (drugbank.ca)