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  • genomic
  • Furthermore, thermophoresis has been demonstrated as a versatile technique for manipulating single biological macromolecules, such as genomic-length DNA, and HIV virus in micro- and nanochannels by means of light-induced local heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme digestion: First, genomic DNA is digested using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using MspI to digest genomic DNA results in fragments that always start with a C (if the cytosine is methylated) or a T (if a cytosine was not methylated and was converted to a uracil in the bisulfite conversion reaction). (wikipedia.org)
  • dsDNA
  • RNA-programmable CRISPR endonucleases induce targeted dsDNA breaks, triggering cellular DNA repair pathways. (pnas.org)
  • subunits
  • For example, the (SSB)65 binding mode, in which approximately 65 nucleotides of DNA wrap around the SSB tetramer and contact all four of its subunits, is favoured at high salt concentrations in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA binds between subunits and along the top of the ring. (rcsb.org)
  • RecA
  • Plays a role in DNA repair and genome reconstitution in a RecA-independent process. (rcsb.org)
  • 2009) The Mycoplasma pneumoniae MPN490 and Mycoplasma genitalium MG339 Genes Encode RecA Homologs That Promote Homologous DNA Strand Exchange. (epibio.com)
  • The binding and polymerization of RecA protein to DNA is required for recombination, which is an essential function of life. (pnas.org)
  • We study the pressure and temperature dependence of RecA binding to single-stranded DNA in the presence of adenosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATP[γ-S]), in a temperature regulated high pressure cell using fluorescence anisotropy. (pnas.org)
  • Our results of the binding of RecA from E. coli and T. thermophilus show adaptation to pressure and temperature at the single protein level. (pnas.org)
  • The specific systems studied by him include RecA, RuvA, uracil DNA glycosylase, single stranded DNA binding protein, ribosome recycling factor, peptidyl tRNA hydrolase, pantothenate kinase and DNA binding protein in stationary phase cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The transcription elongation complex directs activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated DNA deamination. (addgene.org)
  • CRISPR
  • Double-stranded breaks are generated through CRISPR/Cas9 editing , then repaired by the endogenous cellular pathways of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and HDR. (genewiz.com)
  • In addition, we report CRISPR/Cpf1-mediated DNA editing efficiencies being boosted 500-fold through the use of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) as repair templates. (pnas.org)
  • sequence
  • Both strands will be delivered for each sequence entry. (idtdna.com)
  • In October 2010, the United States government issued final Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA, describing how commercial providers of synthetic genes should perform gene sequence and customer screening. (idtdna.com)
  • This method improves upon the single read through the nanopore by doubling the sites that the sequence is read per nanopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • DNA polymerases (which include RT) share highly conserved structural features, which means that their active catalytic sites vary little from species to species, or even between DNA polymerases using DNA as a template, versus DNA polymerases using RNA as a template. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains to be determined whether Cpf1-induced staggered DNA cleavage enhances ssODN-mediated gene editing in a wider range of species and whether the underlying repair pathway(s) responsible is more broadly conserved. (pnas.org)
  • strain TG07-C28 DNA virus (Csp05DNAV), C. setoensis DNA virus (CsetDNAV), and Thalassionema nitzschioides DNA virus (TnitDNAV)), the only species officially classified in this genus is Chaetoceros salsugineum DNA virus 01 (CsalDNAV01. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type species of the genus Gemycircularvirus-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence associated DNA virus 1-is currently the only cultivated member of the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • preparation
  • I've used the following alternative, highly simplified protocol (from friends while at Princeton) for the preparation of ss DNA templates from recombinant phagemid vectors (e.g. pBlueScript): 1. (bio.net)
  • molecular
  • Although 'CsCl-prepped' DNA is obviously the best, for preparing multiple templates, we DNA prepared with the normal alkaline-lysis miniprep procedure and PEG precipitate (as described, for example, in the Molecular Cloning manual). (bio.net)
  • Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE) specific for bromacil. (hindawi.com)
  • template
  • Use 2 ul to check ss template DNA on agarose gel. (bio.net)
  • Double-stranded DNA has historically been the template of choice for gene insertions, but recent research has shown the superiority of ssODNs as a donor template for HDR. (genewiz.com)
  • To ensure that only the template strand is labelled, the newly formed strands must be degraded by BrdU incorporation and photolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Additional advantages of scAAV include increased and prolonged transgene expression in vitro and in vivo, as well as "higher in vivo DNA stability and more effective circularization. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Past methods have been used to track the inheritance patterns of chromatids on a per-strand basis and elucidate the process of non-random segregation: Pulse-chase experiments have been used for determining the segregation patterns of chromosomes in addition to studying other time-dependent cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vector
  • Like all vector-based approaches to gene therapy, one obstacle in translating therapies from pre-clinical trials into a human clinical application will be the production of large quantities of highly concentrated virus One disadvantage that scAAV faces is that due to robust gene expression, transgene products delivered via scAAV elicit a stronger immune response than those same transgenes delivered via a single-stranded AAV vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Binding of single-stranded DNA to the tetramer can occur in different "modes", with SSB occupying different numbers of DNA bases depending on a number of factors, including salt concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • miniprep
  • Kits are available for total RNA purification, plasmid miniprep, gel extraction, and DNA & RNA cleanup. (neb.com)
  • virus
  • It is a non-enveloped, positive strand, RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They reduce virus DNA levels and symptom severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A likely scenario has been proposed under which the ancestral parvovirus genome was integrated into a large virus-derived DNA transposon of the Polinton/Maverick (polintovirus) family resulting in the acquisition of the polintovirus PolB gene along with terminal inverted repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • As the definition states, genes are portions of the DNA strand. (apologeticspress.org)
  • On a single strand of DNA , there can be numerous portions (known as genes), each of which assists in the design of the body plan. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Using the genetic sequence information for the 1918 flu virus, Dr. Nabel and his VRC colleagues created plasmids--small strands of DNA designed to express specific characteristics--carrying genes for the virus' hemagglutinin (HA) protein, the surface protein found in all flu viruses that allows the virus to stick to a cell and cause infection. (innovations-report.com)
  • Later in the 2000's, post-genomic research in his laboratory established signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of many genes and genetic elements, including multiple replication origins, general transcription factors, and DNA repair systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for DNA cloning to be completed, it is necessary to obtain discrete, small regions of an organism's DNA that constitute specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • These DNA primer pairs were designed by prioritizing the gene regions most commonly found in transcript variants. (bio-rad.com)
  • We isolated the single stranded DNA (ssDNA) of the sense strand of our gene by growing the vector harboring our gene in a uracil-N-glycosidase (UNG) and deoxyuracil triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DUT) deficient E. coli- strain. (igem.org)
  • Research applications such as gene editing, gene expression, and directed differentiation depend on the effective, efficient delivery of DNA, RNA and/or Cas9 protein complexes into stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • For gene editing, Lipofectamine Stem reagent allows the co-transfection of Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNAs along with single-stranded DNA for homology directed repair. (thermofisher.com)
  • In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Rieper, Anders and Vedral modelled the electron clouds of nucleic acids in a single strand of DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours. (xonl.de)
  • G-quadruplexes, also known as G4 DNA are secondary structures found in nucleic acids that are rich in guanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • mtDNA is highly conserved, and its relatively slow mutation rates (compared to other DNA regions such as microsatellites) make it useful for studying the evolutionary relationships-phylogeny-of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymine
  • These cells thus did not have the ability to maintain thymine in their DNA, and so all T's become replaced by U's in the DNA of these cells. (igem.org)
  • plasmids
  • Lipofectamine Stem reagent offers expanded capabilities for stem cell transfection, making it possible to deliver DNA plasmids in sizes up to 11 kb. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mice were then injected with a DNA vaccine containing both types of plasmids to determine whether they would generate immune responses to the 1918 virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • mechanism
  • To compensate, they have evolved a sophisticated DNA repair mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever the mechanism, this single parent (uniparental inheritance) pattern of mtDNA inheritance is found in most animals, most plants and in fungi as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • For each restriction enzyme, bacteria also produce a modification enzyme so that a host bacterium's own DNA is protected from cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphodiester
  • They are covalently ligated together through the standard 3' to 5' phosphodiester bonds of DNA.DNA ligase can ligate complimentary sticky and blunt ends, but blunt-end ligation is inefficient and requires a higher concentration of both DNA and DNA ligase than the ligation of sticky ends does. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cas9
  • Designed for dramatically improved transfection efficiency, Invitrogen Lipofectamine Stem Transfection Reagent offers a simple, robust and reproducible method for delivering DNA, RNA and RNP such as Cas9/gRNA complexes into a wide range of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells, neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (Figure 2) . (thermofisher.com)
  • reaction
  • Use the PrimePCR positive control assay to qualitatively assess the performance of a PCR reaction associated with a single sample. (bio-rad.com)
  • segments
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • It is hypothesized that DNA stretching by DnaA bound to the origin promotes strand separation which allows more DnaA to bind to the unwound region. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Use the PrimePCR RNA quality assay to determine if RNA integrity may adversely affect PCR results for a single sample. (bio-rad.com)
  • restriction
  • For the purposes of DNA cloning, purified DNA ligase is used to covalently join the ends of a restriction fragment and vector DNA that have complimentary ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Control assays and synthetic DNA templates were designed to facilitate the assessment of the key experimental factors impacting your real-time PCR results. (bio-rad.com)
  • To determine the vaccine's protective effects, the CDC's Dr. Tumpey intranasally exposed a group of mice to live, reconstructed 1918 virus 14 days after they were immunized with the experimental DNA vaccine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the researchers are not discounting the potential role T-cells may have in combating flu viruses, they concluded that in this study, the experimental DNA vaccine protected the mice by stimulating antibodies capable of neutralizing the 1918 flu virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • mutation
  • Thus, the native Kumamolisin strand that still contained the U's from the UNG-/DUT- strain was degraded, and the new cells incorporated our desired mutation when synthesizing new DNA from the variant strand. (igem.org)
  • Manipulation
  • Beispiele sind die Optische Kohärenztomographie, die Manipulation von DNA, die STED- und Lichtblatt-Mikroskopie oder das Digital Imaging. (xonl.de)
  • stays
  • DNA/RNA stays in the nucleus and is rearely in the open state? (cram.com)
  • In contrast, with the negative control DNA p53 stays more open. (utexas.edu)
  • genetic
  • Through the study of DNA and its genetic coding, the process of inheritance and expression of traits can be described scientifically. (apologeticspress.org)
  • patterns
  • For this reason, two or more patterns are often associated with a single motif: the defining pattern, and various typical patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • PCR inhibition is the most common cause of amplification failure when sufficient copies of DNA are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • Replicative senescence is the result of telomere shortening that ultimately triggers a DNA damage response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitors may be present in the original sample, such as blood, fabrics, tissues and soil but may also be added as a result of the sample processing and DNA extraction techniques used. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Time-lapse phase-contrast (left) and fluorescence (right) movies of human ES cells (H9) grown in Essential 8 medium on vitronectin and transfected with 1 µL Lipofectamine Stem reagent complexed with a GFP-expression construct (500 ng total plasmid DNA). (thermofisher.com)
  • (A) Human ES (H9) cells or Human Episomal iPSCs were transfected with Lipofectamine Stem Reagent or FuGENE HD Regent according to the accompanying protocol and either a 5 kb or 11 kb DNA plasmid expressing GFP and examined for GFP expression 24 hours posttransfection. (thermofisher.com)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • approach
  • Despite MinION™'s observed read error rate of 30%, which is higher than that of other DNA sequencing methods, the team was able to overcome some of the current limitations by utilizing an approach based on amplified DNA (an 'amplicon' approach). (blogspot.se)