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  • Loci
  • 2011. Exploring Tree-Habitat Associations in a Chinese Subtropical Forest Plot Using a Molecular Phylogeny Generated from DNA Barcode Loci. (si.edu)
  • 1997
  • Boehmer PE and Lehman IR (1997) Herpes simplex virus DNA replication. (els.net)
  • The database was originally launched as the "Angiosperm DNA C-values Database" in April 1997, essentially as an online version of collected data lists that had been published by Prof. Bennett and colleagues since the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997. Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms - 583 new estimates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marc Van Mon
  • Along with his colleague, Marc Van Montagu, Jeff Schell discovered the gene transfer mechanism between Agrobacterium and plants, which resulted in the development of methods to alter Agrobacterium into an efficient delivery system for gene engineering in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In the case of plant DNA viruses, there is a cell wall that imposes restrictions on viral release. (els.net)
  • In addition to the standard scanning process to start translation, two other mechanisms (ribosome shunting and leaky scanning) are used by different DNA viruses to control translation of various viral ORFs. (els.net)
  • They are spontaneously produced by error-prone viral replication, something particularly prevalent in RNA viruses over DNA viruses due to the enzyme used (replicase, or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • contamination
  • As such, early studies that reported recovery of much older DNA, for example from Cretaceous dinosaur remains, may have stemmed from contamination of the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, and this establishes the polarity of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant has these positive and negative mediators allowing for normal plant growth and development, which has been proven true by the severely dwarfed phenotype of mpk4 and the embryo lethal phenotype of mpk3 and mpk6 mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • The observation shows that the activation of MPK3/MPK6 in conditional gain-of-function plants for MKK4/MKK5 or MEKK1/MKKKa is sufficient to induce camalexin, which is a major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • Examples include the analysis of DNA recovered from archaeological and historical skeletal material, mummified tissues, archival collections of non-frozen medical specimens, preserved plant remains, ice and permafrost cores, Holocene plankton in marine and lake sediments, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • polysaccharides
  • Since plants are very heterogenous and contain many different metabolites, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, or acidic components, NucleoSpin Plant II offers two different lysis procedures for optimal processing of various samples. (clontech.com)
  • Tobacco
  • Some of the plants and products they developed included Vine sweet mini peppers, the Fish tomato and Y1 Tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y1 was developed by tobacco plant researcher James Chapin, for Brown & Williamson (then a subsidiary of British American Tobacco) in the late 1970s, with the approval of the president at the time, Jimmie Carter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapin, a director of the USDA Research Laboratory at Oxford, North Carolina, had described the need for a higher nicotine tobacco plant in the trade publication World Tobacco in 1977, and had bred a number of high-nicotine strains based on a hybrid of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica, but they were weak and would blow over in a strong wind. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, FDA investigators discovered a Brazilian patent describing a tobacco plant with an unusually high nicotine content, which led them to B&W and Y1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland all innovated with milder varieties of the tobacco plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • They frequently subvert cellular pathways involved in transcription, translation, DNA replication and cellular defence. (els.net)
  • MAPK pathways have both a positive and negative regulation in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK pathways in plants are known to regulate cell growth, cell development, cell death, and cell responses to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are multiple pathways, but one pathway that plants have been able to develop is a self-defense mechanism by recognize pathogens through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-located pathogen-recognition receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples
  • Examples are given for viruses with a single‐stranded DNA genome, either (a) linear ( Parvoviridae , genus Dependovirus ) or (b) circular ( Geminiviridae , genus Mastrevirus ), and with a double‐stranded DNA genome, either (c) linear ( Adenoviridae , genus Mastadenovirus ) or (d) circular ( Papovaviridae , genus Polyomavirus ). (els.net)
  • Technology
  • That same year, DNA Plant Technology sold its wholly owned subsidiary called to Frost Technology Corporation to Simplot. (wikipedia.org)
  • While working for DNA Plant Technology, the scientists Richard A. Jorgensen and Carolyn Napoli made discoveries about post transcriptional gene silencing that went on to form the basis of a number of U.S. patents on gene regulation and crop manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) have provided the first evidence that engineered nanoparticles are able to accumulate within plants and damage their DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • DNA Plant Technology Seminis Mexidata article Danforth Center website/ Jörnmark, Moa. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Plant Technology (DNAP), Agritope and Monsanto developed tomatoes that delayed ripening by preventing the production of ethylene, a hormone that triggers ripening of fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be also loosely described as any DNA recovered from biological samples that have not been preserved specifically for later DNA analyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,000
  • In animals they range more than 3,300-fold, and in land plants they differ by a factor of about 1,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • auxin
  • She conducted extensive research into interactions between ethylene and auxin (another key plant hormone) in controlling numerous aspects of plant development. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Their study is providing key information for designing strategies of virus control and, at the same time, DNA viruses are extremely useful molecular tools to delineate the mechanisms behind basic cellular processes. (els.net)
  • Strategies for initiation of translation in DNA viruses. (els.net)
  • The existence of DIPs has been known about for decades, and they can occur within nearly every class of both DNA and RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Plants grown inflight experience a microgravity environment, and plants grown on the surface of Mars experience approximately 1/3 the gravity that earth plants do. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, so long as plants are provided with directional light, those grown in low gravity environments still experienced normal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This being said many plants grown in a space flight environment have been significantly smaller than those grown on earth's surface and grew at a slower rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to varying effects of gravity, unless protected, plants grown on the surface of Mars will be exposed to much higher levels of radiation than on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants are grown on media containing antibiotic following transformation, and those that do not have the T-DNA integrated into their genome will die. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • These libraries are to then be supplied to researchers and the DNA preserved for thousands of years. (bio.net)
  • If the former, the researchers also wanted to find out if nanosizing had any substantial effects on plant growth and health. (innovations-report.com)
  • Finally, the researchers showed that cupric oxide nanoparticles had a significant effect on growth, stunting the development of both roots and shoots in all three plant species tested. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2001
  • Release 1.0 of the more inclusive Plant DNA C-values Database was launched in 2001, with subsequent releases 2.0 in January 2003 and 3.0 in December 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Early/late gene expression (transcription) and the DNA replication stages can occur either in the cytoplasm (poxviruses) or in the nucleus of the infected cell. (els.net)
  • In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike
  • Unlike animals, plants continually form new organs and older organs undergo a highly regulated senescence program to maximize nutrient export. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethylene
  • She is best known for her work on the gas ethylene, in particular for demonstrating that ethylene is a natural plant hormone, and that it is the major regulator of ageing and the shedding of leaves and fruits. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is particularly known for her work establishing that the gas ethylene is a natural plant hormone, rather than a by-product or pollutant, and for demonstrating that ethylene, rather than abscisic acid, is the major regulator of senescence (ageing) and abscission (shedding of parts such as leaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • rolled-leaf
  • Using a comprehensive DNA barcode library to detect novel egg and larval host plant associations in a Cephaloleia rolled-leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (si.edu)
  • growth
  • However, a 2006 study suggests maintaining elevated CO2 concentrations can mitigate the effects of hypobaric conditions as low as 10 kPa to achieve normal plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her PhD on the topic of plant growth regulators was from the University of London at Wye College, Kent, where her supervisor was R. Louis Wain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormonal control of growth, differentiation and development in plants was Osborne's lifelong interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is characterised by a tumour-like growth or gall on the infected plant, often at the junction between the root and the shoot. (wikipedia.org)