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  • genes
  • Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. (nih.gov)
  • The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which are chemical cousins of DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in at least three mitochondrial genes can cause cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, which is a condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles), the heart, the brain, or the liver. (nih.gov)
  • The mitochondrial genes associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency provide instructions for making proteins that are part of a large enzyme group (complex) called cytochrome c oxidase (also known as complex IV). (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis of NARP is established in a proband with suggestive clinical features and identification of a heteroplasmic pathogenic variant in one of the three mitochondrial genes known to be involved in NARP. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • wolves
  • The Himalayan wolf is a proposed clade within the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus filchneri) that is distinguished by its mitochondrial DNA, which is basal to all other wolves including other Tibetan wolves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a major study looked at the DNA sequences of dogs and wolves and was intending to include 2 Tibetan wolves but then: excluded two aberrant modern wolf sequences from this analysis since their phylogenetic positioning suggests only a distant relationship to all extant gray wolves and their taxonomic classification as a member of Canis lupus or a separate sub-species is a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • HVR1
  • Family Tree DNA stopped offering the basic HVR1 test in May 2013. (isogg.org)
  • species
  • The chromosomes are divided and both parents contribute to their offspring's chromosomal DNA (in those species which reproduce sexually, which is almost all). (everything2.com)
  • As a result, reactive oxygen species easily damage mitochondrial DNA, causing cells to malfunction and ultimately to die. (nih.gov)
  • The taxonomic status of this wolf clade is disputed, with the separate species Canis himalayensis being proposed based on two limited DNA studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • haplotypes
  • Haplotypes associated with more loosely coupled mitochondrial respiration, with reduced ATP and ROS generation, have been associated with faster progression and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • A study of the mitochondrial control region of the specimen that Hodgson collected (labelled BM58.6.24.61) was found to fall within the proposed Himalayan wolf clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • The concept of the Mitochondrial Eve is based on the same type of analysis, attempting to discover the origin of humanity by tracking the lineage back in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • A major advance involves the use of a state-of-the-art robotics workstation to automate what is usually a manual process for sequencing mitochondrial DNA - determining the exact order that the DNA's four component chemicals are linked together within the strand. (scienceblog.com)
  • cells
  • Cells that have high energy demands, such as those in the inner ear that are critical for hearing, are particularly sensitive to the effects of mitochondrial DNA damage. (nih.gov)