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  • Epigenetics
  • On this occasion, it doesn't involve miracle species or the like, but rather the results obtained by the University of Cordoba BIO301 research team called "Epigenetics and DNA Repair. (news-medical.net)
  • QIAGEN's dedicated solutions for epigenetics facilitate cancer research and help to overcome bottlenecks that have existed in screening, identification, and quantification of CpG sites in methylation analysis. (qiagen.com)
  • Smoking during pregnancy profoundly changes both DNA and the expression of placental genes, a possible factor in physical changes that can last a lifetime, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report in the current edition of the journal Epigenetics. (redorbit.com)
  • She is the author of The Epigenetics Revolution and Junk DNA: A Journey Through the Dark Matter of the Genome which explore advances in the field of epigenetics and their implications for medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] She continues to be a leader in her field through her research on flowering processes and the role of DNA methylation and epigenetics helping to understand the mechanisms contributing to the down-regulation of flowering locus C (FLC) in vernalized plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Repair, 3, 671-682 (2004) Epigenetics: a historical overview. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetics refers to the study of long-term changes in gene expression, which may or may not be heritable, which are not caused by changes to the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting , X-chromosome inactivation , repression of transposable elements , aging , and carcinogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason I am asking is that I occasionally encounter cases of possible incomplete digestion of restriction sites in genomic plant DNA with enzymes like HindIII (recognition sequence AAGCTT). (bio.net)
  • 1992) A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5‐methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands. (els.net)
  • MethBase contents include single-CpG site resolution methylation levels for each CpG site in the genome of interest, annotation of regions of hypomethylation often associated with gene promoters, and annotation of allele-specific methylation associated with genomic imprinting. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels of methylation
  • Lower levels of methylation have been linked to a variety of diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Her contribution to plant science includes her early work, cloning the first plant (METI), and her work demonstrating that DNA methylation (a biochemical process that modifies the plant's DNA) is essential for normal plant development and by reducing levels of methylation changes the plant's size and shape, flowering time, structure of the flowers and number of seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • She generated plants with reduced levels of DNA methylation using an antisense against METI, and determined the molecular basis for the abnormal phenotypes displayed by plants with reduced levels of methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Now, the recently launched PyroMark Q24 Advanced system makes it easy to quantify methylation at non-CpG (CpN) sites commonly found in embryonic stem cells and plants, expanding the application range of this powerful technique. (qiagen.com)
  • mechanism
  • The near-universal replacement of uracil by thymine in DNA, but not RNA, may have evolved as an error-control mechanism, to facilitate the removal of uracils generated by the spontaneous deamination of cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tissue culture cells this process is highly specific and appears to involve an active mechanism which takes place in the absence of DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • Even if silencing of a gene is initiated by another mechanism, this often is followed by methylation of CpG sites in the promoter CpG island to stabilize the silencing of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three mechanism that can cause 6q24-related TNDM, which includes the father's DNA being defected by uniparental isodisomy (UPD) on chromosome 6 and inherited duplication of 6q24 (inherited duplication is a small chromosomal change in which a very little amount of genetic material is copied in chromosome 6). (wikipedia.org)
  • Holliday described a mechanism of DNA-strand exchange that attempted to explain gene-conversion events that occur during meiosis in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975 he suggested that DNA methylation could be an important mechanism for the control of gene expression in higher organisms, and this has now become documented as a basic epigenetic mechanism in normal and also cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • Human airways already demonstrate gender-based differences in DNA methylation signatures at birth, providing an early hint of which infants may be predisposed to develop respiratory disorders like asthma later in life, a research team reports in a paper published online April 3, 2018, in Scientific Reports. (news-medical.net)
  • occurs
  • Loss of amino-groups occurs with a high frequency for cytosines, with different consequences depending on their methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This should not be methylated by the usual rules, but if either GC or CXXG methylation occurs it would block digestion. (bio.net)
  • heritable
  • Gene silencing mediated by promoter homology occur at the level of transcription and results in meiotically heritable alterations in methylation and gene activity, Plant J., 1996, 9(2): 183. (springer.com)
  • These mechanisms contribute to regulating gene expression without changing the sequence of the DNA and may be influenced by exposure to environmental factors and may be heritable from parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • context
  • Furthermore, non-CpG methylation has also been observed in hematopoietic progenitor cells, and it occurred mainly in a CpApC sequence context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other valuable features include the inherent quality control afforded by the sequence context of results and the ability to compare results to expected methylation levels. (qiagen.com)
  • replication
  • This misincorporated base will not be corrected during DNA replication as thymine is a DNA base. (wikipedia.org)
  • CpG islands (CGI) are regions of approximately 1 kb, which colocalise with the origins of DNA replication and with the promoters of about 70% of all genes. (els.net)
  • The great majority of CpG islands colocalise with transcription initiation sites and the origins of DNA replication. (els.net)
  • Delgado S, Gómez M, Bird A and Antequera F (1998) Initiation of DNA replication at CpG islands in mammalian chromosomes. (els.net)
  • As graduate students at Caltech, he and Joel A. Huberman collaborated on work that later led to a classic paper on mammalian DNA replication, which was published in 1966. (wikipedia.org)
  • They wanted to use radioactive nucleotides to tag replicating DNA and then use photographic film to create a physical image of what happens during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using their method, they were able to measure the rate of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicated that chromosomal DNA contained many sections, which replicated independently, and that replication occurred in both directions at each section's origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results were important and helped to extend scientists' understanding of mammalian DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes
  • As opposed to the programmed changes in DNA methylation which occur in vivo, immortalized tissue culture cells demonstrate alterations in DNA modification which take place over a long time scale and which appear to be the result of selective pressures present during the growth of these cells in culture. (nih.gov)
  • As such, Pyrosequencing can detect and quantify even small changes in methylation levels. (qiagen.com)
  • This technology has been used to correlate DNA methylation to tumor type and gene expression, to measure cellular response to treatment with demethylating agents, and to assess changes in methylation state in relation to tumorigenesis, genetic imprinting, and exposure to environmental toxins (1). (qiagen.com)
  • This association supports the hypothesis that prenatal adversity associates with changes in neonatal methylation consistent with a delayed developmental age, which may have consequences later in life," the authors write. (eurekalert.org)
  • But in some diseases, in particular cancers, aberrant CpG methylation changes may occur, and both genomewide hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation in promoters of tumor suppressor genes can be observed. (qiagen.com)
  • In a study that correlated changes in DNA methylation (a chemical change that affects the level of gene expression) to changes in gene expression across the genome of the placenta (the small ovoid organ that nourishes the embryo in the uterus), Dr. Kjersti Aagaard and her colleagues found changes in methylation and gene expression of only 25 genes in non-smokers but 438 genes among smokers. (redorbit.com)
  • bisulfite conversion
  • For comparison, the corresponding data are also shown for human sperm DNA that was spiked into the Drosophila sample before bisulfite conversion (black bars). (nih.gov)
  • 2002
  • Experimental Gerontology 37, 851-857 (2002) Early studies on recombination and DNA repair in Ustilago maydis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • In sporadic cancers, a DNA repair deficiency is occasionally found to be due to a mutation in a DNA repair gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, among 119 cases of mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers that lacked DNA repair gene PMS2 expression, 6 had a mutation in the PMS2 gene, while for 103 PMS2 was deficient because its pairing partner MLH1 was repressed due to promoter methylation (PMS2 protein is unstable in the absence of MLH1). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The researchers also found that the difference between a newborn's age predicted by DNA methylation and by an obstetrician may be another indicator of developmental maturity, and is correlated with birthweight, commonly used as an indicator of perinatal health. (eurekalert.org)
  • Twenty-two DNA repair genes with hypermethylated promoters, and reduced or absent expression, were found to occur among 17 types of cancer, as listed in two review articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nurturing behaviours from the mother rat were found to stimulate activation of stress signalling pathways that remove methyl groups from DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • They also developed a method in which researchers add short "linkers" to DNA sequences and insert them into bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • The article Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase indicates the DNA repair gene WRN has a promoter that is frequently hypermethylated in a number of cancers, with hypermethylation occurring in 11% to 38% of colorectal, head and neck, stomach, prostate, breast, thyroid, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma cancers (see WRN). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factors
  • Diabetic retinopathy is known to be associated with a number of epigenetic markers, including methylation of the Sod2 and MMP-9 genes, an increase in transcription of LSD1, a H3K4 and H3K9 demethylase, and various DNA Methyl-Transferases (DNMTs), and increased presence of miRNAs for transcription factors and VEGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Nature paper from 1981 (Vol. 292, 860-862), where nearest neighbor analysis was used to show a high level of methylation at CG and CXG. (bio.net)
  • This example shows the analysis of a sequence with a CpN site (CpA in this case) in the first position, followed by 2 classical CpG sites (see figure New mode for analyzing CpN methylation ). (qiagen.com)
  • They hoped to mix E. coli lac repressor with lac operator, crystallize it, and examine the protein-DNA binding of the crystals using high-resolution DNA methylation analysis. (wikipedia.org)