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  • Replication
  • To cause genomic instability particularly at chromosome loci that are intrinsically difficult to replicate because of the complexity of secondary structures or difficulty in unwinding during DNA replication [3,18, (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • The problematic progression of replication fork in centromeric or pericentromeric regions may generate DNA lesions under replication stress . (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • This is because all intact/ normal human chrom.To cause genomic instability particularly at chromosome loci that are intrinsically difficult to replicate because of the complexity of secondary structures or difficulty in unwinding during DNA replication [3,18, (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • genotoxic
  • To avoid excessive DNA probing by the low specificity of the protein, the steady-state level in the nucleus is controlled by nucleus-cytoplasm shuttling, allowing temporally higher concentrations of XPC in the nucleus under genotoxic stress conditions. (uva.nl)
  • strand
  • For download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double strand break, the non-Christian' of arrangements can discover wealthy Messianic investments. (bobcatsworld.com)
  • KIRRALIE SMITH: A download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double strand break repair pathway choice of the organizations do to &, Chicago-based stories and common data in this acting. (bobcatsworld.com)
  • tail
  • After staining with a DNA-specific fluorescent dye such as ethidium bromide or propidium iodide, the gel is read for amount of fluorescence in head and tail and length of tail. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • breaks
  • The term "chromosomal fragile sites" is designated to describe the recurrent loci that preferentially exhibit chromatid gaps and breaks on metaphase chromosomes under partial inhibition of DNA synthesis . (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • ultraviolet
  • V. M. Maher, D. J. Dorney, A. L. Mendrala, B. Konze-Thomas, and J. J. McCormick, DNA excision-repair processes in human cells can eliminate the cytotoxic and mutagenic consequences of ultraviolet irradiation, Mutat. (springer.com)
  • A theory published almost 40 years ago states that HSPC niches in terrestrial animals evolved at sites that minimize damage from ionizing radiation 9 , with the assumption that water would have provided aquatic organisms with protection from damaging ultraviolet light. (nature.com)
  • Ultraviolet light, environmental chemicals, even the by-products of normal cellular metabolism all conspire to continually assault the DNA of humans and every other living thing. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Such environmental factors include ultraviolet damage and cigarette smoke that contain a variety of carcinogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzophenone prevents ultraviolet (UV) light from damaging scents and colors in products such as perfumes and soaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage is caused by ultraviolet rays from sunlight, radiation, or free radicals in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • In response to any source of DNA damage, cells must initiate an effective DNA damage response (DDR) to maintain genomic integrity, wherein two protein kinases, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), are major regulators of DNA damage recognition and repair. (springer.com)
  • This review will focus on polyomaviruses and their interaction with ATM- and ATR-mediated DNA damage responses and the effect of this interaction on host genomic stability. (springer.com)
  • provide a mechanism through which cells with genomic damage may switch between these alternative fates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chromothripsis is characterized by extensive genomic rearrangements and an oscillating pattern of DNA copy number levels, all curiously restricted to one or a few chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • HBx causes dysregulation by binding to genomic DNA, changing expression patterns of miRNAs, affecting histone methyltransferases, binding to SIRT1 protein to activate transcription, and cooperating with histone methylases and demethylases to change cell expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirect DNA da
  • While the human body reacts to direct DNA damages with a painful warning signal, no such warning signal is generated from indirect DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indirect DNA damage occurs when a UV-photon is absorbed in the human skin by a chromophore that does not have the ability to convert the energy into harmless heat very quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that indirect DNA damage does not result in any warning signal or pain in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to DNA as a result of free radical attack is called indirect DNA damage because the radicals formed can diffuse throughout the body and affect other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant melanoma can be caused by indirect DNA damage because it is found in parts of the body not exposed to sunlight. (wikipedia.org)
  • helicase
  • see the Perspective by Hasty and Vijg) of mice carrying a mutant version of the DNA helicase gene XPD. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show that when a replisome encounters the lesion, a substantial fraction of DNA polymerase (DNAP) and helicase stay together at the lesion, the replisome does not dissociate and the helicase does not move forward on its own. (nih.gov)
  • Single-molecule experiments of leading-strand synthesis on a DNA template containing a CPD lesion in the presence of helicase. (nih.gov)
  • transcription
  • Nevertheless, there are arguments against this point of view (1) and, even if damage to DNA is the important element in cancer initiation, one should always keep in mind the possibilities that the switch from normal to cancer cells may arise from faulty transcription and hence translation (as seems to be the case in the death of UV-irradiated arrested human fibroblasts). (springer.com)
  • The authors propose that the aging phenotype in the TTD mice is caused by unrepaired DNA damage that compromises transcription, which in turn leads to functional inactivation of critical genes and cell death. (sciencemag.org)
  • Now Japanese researchers have shown how environmentally damaged letters lead to transcription flaws and, ultimately, human diversity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The proteins made by these genes are involved in repairing damaged DNA via the transcription-coupled repair mechanism, particularly the DNA in active genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This deficiency reflects the loss of ability to perform the DNA repair process known as transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Hydroxyl radicals can attack the deoxyribose DNA backbone and bases, potentially causing a plethora of lesions that can be cytotoxic or mutagenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In cells with extensive DNA damage, reduced phosphorylation of FOXO1 allows its translocation to the nucleus, where it enhances expression of apoptosis-inducing genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human populations studies show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, causing up-regulation of their expression, correlate with increases in longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for DNA damage and repair research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • for example, some posit it is programmed by gene expression changes, others that it is the cumulative damage caused by biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If either the ERCC6 or the ERCC8 gene is altered (as in Cockayne Syndrome), DNA damage is not repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Throughout the cell's lifetime, this information is transcribed and replicated by cellular mechanisms to produce proteins or to provide instructions for daughter cells during cell division, and the possibility exists that the DNA may be altered during these processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymine
  • Subtle changes in the pairing of the chemical letters of DNA--adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine--produce new cells with different traits than their ancestors. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Other names for the "direct DNA damage" are: thymine dimers pyrimidine dimers Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers (CPDs) UV-endonuclease-sensitive-sites (ESS) Due to the excellent photochemical properties of DNA, this nature-made molecule is damaged by only a tiny fraction of the absorbed photons. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • 2012. Defective DNA repair and cell cycle arrest in cells expressing merkel cell polyomavirus T antigen. (springer.com)
  • repair
  • E. C. Friedberg, U. K. Ehmann, and J. I. Williams, Human diseases associated with defective DNA repair, Adv. Radiat. (springer.com)
  • DNA Repair (Amst), 8: 1166-1176. (springer.com)
  • For an organism to remain healthy, cells with damaged DNA must either pause in the cell cycle for a repair job or succumb to elimination by apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • While most DNA damages can undergo DNA repair, such repair is not 100% efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of DNA damage, the cell can either repair the damage or induce cell death if the damage is beyond repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some forms of damage repair included, but are not limited to base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and non-homologous end joining. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATR and ATM phosphorylate various proteins that contribute to the damage repair system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inefficient repair of DNA damaged by ionizing radiation or chemical agents in these mutants revealed proteins essential in this pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rad3 also phosphorylates a number of other proteins whose absence abolishes checkpoint DNA repair, including rad1, rad9, hus1 and rad17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of chk1 also rescues the radiation sensitivity of rad mutants, presumably by allowing DNA repair to take place before entry into mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • and that increased DNA repair facilitates greater longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their analysis supported the hypothesis that improved DNA repair leads to longer life span. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of free radical attack on DNA, base-excision repair is the repair mechanism used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying disorder is a defect in a DNA repair mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A normal cell can repair damage to DNA easily before it collects. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, DNA damage can trigger a CSB-dependent recombinational repair process that uses an RNA (rather than DNA) template. (wikipedia.org)
  • The premature aging features of CS are likely due, at least in part, to the deficiencies in DNA repair (see DNA damage theory of aging). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • pyrimidine
  • R. W. Hart, R. B. Setlow, and A. D. Woodhead, Evidence that pyrimidine dmers in DNA can give rise to tumors, Proc. (springer.com)
  • accumulation
  • A popular theory postulates that aging is triggered by cellular accumulation of oxidative damage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hypothesis that aging is caused by accumulated DNA danage The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, they concluded that while the complexity of responses to DNA damage remains only partly understood, the idea that DNA damage accumulation with age is the primary cause of aging remains an intuitive and powerful one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Descriptions of reduced function, characteristic of aging and associated with accumulation of DNA damage, are given later in this article. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • They genetically engineered fish to lack melanocyte pigmentation, and showed that UV radiation caused higher levels of DNA damage in these fish than in controls, as well as an increase in HSPC death. (nature.com)
  • The absorption spectrum of DNA shows a strong absorption for UVB radiation and a much lower absorption for UVA radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • This reaction allows for hydrogen peroxide created by radiolysis of water to diffuse to the nucleus and react with Iron (II) to produce hydroxyl radicals, which in turn react with DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Therefore, synthesis and insertion of healthy DNA is vital for normal body functions and avoidance of cancerous activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlation
  • R. Goth and M. F. Rajewsky, Persistence of 06-ethylguanine in rat brain DNA: Correlation with nervous system-specific carcinogenesis by ethylnitrosourea, Proc. (springer.com)
  • excessive
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • medical citation needed] In theory, anticarcinogens may act via different mechanisms including enhancement of natural defences against cancer, deactivation of carcinogens, and blocking the mechanisms by which carcinogens act (such as free radical damage to DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • When this plasmid is inserted into a plant, the T-DNA tumor production region causes uncontrolled tumor growth normally at its base (crown) in a process known as Crown Gall Disease (Figure 3). (macalester.edu)
  • Group
  • An international team of researchers led by a group with deCODE Genetics, a biopharmaceutical company in Iceland, has partly recreated the DNA of a man who died in 1827, despite having no body to take tissue samples from. (medicalxpress.com)
  • study
  • Sulfolobus is now used as a model to study the molecular mechanisms of DNA replication in Archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • And because the system of DNA replication in Archaea is much simpler than that in Eukaryota, it was suggested that Archaea could be used as a model to study the much more complex DNA replication in Eukaryota. (wikipedia.org)