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  • coli
  • In E. coli, H-NS binds to a P1 promoter decreasing rRNA production during stationary and slow growth periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotic bacteria cells such as E. coli, facilitated diffusion is required in order for regulatory proteins to locate and bind to target sites on DNA base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoretic
  • An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or mobility shift electrophoresis, also referred as a gel shift assay, gel mobility shift assay, band shift assay, or gel retardation assay, is a common affinity electrophoresis technique used to study protein-DNA or protein-RNA interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mobility shift assay is electrophoretic separation of a protein-DNA or protein-RNA mixture on a polyacrylamide or agarose gel for a short period (about 1.5-2 hr for a 15- to 20-cm gel). (wikipedia.org)
  • dissociation
  • Variants of the competition assay are useful for measuring the specificity of binding and for measurement of association and dissociation kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Thus, these proteins are often the targets of the signal transduction processes that control responses to environmental changes or cellular differentiation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • locates
  • There are 2 main steps involved: the protein binds to a non-specific site on the DNA and then it diffuses along the DNA chain until it locates a target site, a process referred to as sliding. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Similar to a Western blot, the Far-Western blot uses protein-protein interactions to detect the presence of a specific protein immobilized on a blotting matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot for RNA Reverse Northern blot for RNA Western blot for proteins Far-Western blot for protein-protein interactions Eastern blotting for posttranslational modification Far-Eastern blot for glycolipids Dot blot Immunoscreening Towbin et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • histones
  • In eukaryotes, this structure involves DNA binding to a complex of small basic proteins called histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histones form a disk-shaped complex called a nucleosome, which contains two complete turns of double-stranded DNA wrapped around its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone-like proteins were unknown to be present in bacteria until similarities between eukaryotic histones and the HU-protein were noted, particularly because of the abundancy, basicity, and small size of both of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon further investigation, it was discovered that the amino acid composition of HU resembles that of eukaryotic histones, thus prompting further research into the exact function of bacterial DNA binding proteins and discoveries of other related proteins in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • Spermidine increases specificity and reproducibility of Taq-mediated PCR by neutralizing and stabilizing the negative charge on DNA phosphate backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoresis
  • Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are first separated by size using electrophoresis before being transferred to an appropriate blotting matrix (usually PVDF or nitrocellulose) and subsequent detection with antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and are subsequently transferred to nitrocellulose membranes similar to other types of blotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • These DNA targets can occur throughout an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of single-stranded DNA to the tetramer can occur in different "modes", with SSB occupying different numbers of DNA bases depending on a number of factors, including salt concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bauer & Metzler (2013) therefore carried out an experiment using a bacterial genome in which they investigated the average time for TF - DNA binding to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • In contrast, other proteins have evolved to bind to specific DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first helix-loop-helix proteins identified were named E-proteins because they bind to Ephrussi-box (E-box) sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Reverse Northern blot differs from both Northern and Southern blotting in that DNA is first immobilized on a blotting matrix and specific sequences are detected with labeled RNA probes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Since bacterial binding proteins have a diversity of functions, it has been difficult to develop a common function for all of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • HU is a small (10 kDa) bacterial histone-like protein that resembles the eukaryotic Histone H2B. (wikipedia.org)
  • DPS proteins are part of a complex bacterial defence system that protects DNA against oxidative damage and are distributed widely in the bacterial kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • ID proteins could be potential targets for systemic cancer therapies without inhibiting the functioning of most normal cells because they are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, on the DNA contour, the motion is slower and target sites are easy to localize while in the cytoplasm, the motion is faster but the TF's are not sensitive to their targets and so binding is restricted. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • citation needed] Spermidine's known actions include: Inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) Binds and precipitates DNA Polyamine plant growth regulator Good dietary sources of spermidine are aged cheese, mushrooms, soy products, legumes, corn, and whole grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • It can also be released from cells, in which extracellular form it can bind the inflammatory receptor RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are transported through aqueous compartments of cells or through extracellular space by water-soluble carriers (e.g. retinol binding protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their transport must therefore be "facilitated" by proteins that span the membrane and provide an alternative route or bypass mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • citation needed] The mechanism of inflammation and damage is binding to TLR4, which mediates HMGB1-dependent activation of macrophage cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • We endow transcription factors with the ability to deposit a transposon into the genome near to where they bind. (genetics.org)
  • By harvesting the transposon calling cards along with their flanking genomic DNA, a genome-wide map of transcription factor binding can be obtained. (genetics.org)
  • The double stranded DNA genome is contained within an icosahedral capsid embedded in a proteinaceous layer (tegument) and surrounded by a lipid envelope, derived from the nuclear membrane of the last host, which is decorated with virus-specific glycoproteins spikes. (abcam.com)
  • During the latent phase the viral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (abcam.com)
  • These DNA targets can occur throughout an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • HU-type proteins have been found in a variety of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and archaebacteria, and are also encoded in the chloroplast genome of some algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 30,000 to 50,000 hotspots within the human genome corresponding to one for every 50-100kb DNA on average. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bauer & Metzler (2013) therefore carried out an experiment using a bacterial genome in which they investigated the average time for TF - DNA binding to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Participates in the detection by the host's innate immune system of DNA from viral, bacterial or even host origin. (uniprot.org)
  • biological
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Motifs do not allow us to predict the biological functions: they are found in proteins and enzymes with dissimilar functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-stranded
  • The histones form a disk-shaped complex called a nucleosome, which contains two complete turns of double-stranded DNA wrapped around its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • DPS are highly symmetrical dodecameric proteins of 200 kDa characterized from a shell-like structure of 2:3 tetrahedral symmetry assembled from identical subunits with an external diameter of ~ 9 nm and a central cavity of ~ 4.5 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragment
  • The control lane (DNA probe without protein present) will contain a single band corresponding to the unbound DNA or RNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, assuming that the protein is capable of binding to the fragment, the lane with protein present will contain another band that represents the larger, less mobile complex of nucleic acid probe bound to protein which is 'shifted' up on the gel (since it has moved more slowly). (wikipedia.org)
  • When using a biotin label, streptavidin conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase is used to detect the DNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • mRNA
  • It has also been found that H-NS can affect translation as well by binding to mRNA and causing its degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • aggregation
  • The lysine-rich N-terminus is required for self-aggregation as well as for Dps-driven DNA condensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein shells served as a template to restrain particle growth and as a coating to prevent coagulation/aggregation between NPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • junctions
  • the protein was found to be required to regulate the subcellular wrapping of motoneuron axons, promote synaptic growth and the formation of glutamate receptor clusters at the neuromuscular junctions . (sdbonline.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Acts as a cytoplasmic DNA sensor which, when activated, induces the recruitment of TBK1 and IRF3 to its C-terminal region and activates the downstream interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-kappa B transcription factors, leading to type-I interferon production. (uniprot.org)