• Transfection of either human or murine TLR9 conferred responsiveness in a CD14- and MD2-independent manner, yet required species-specific CpG-DNA motifs for initiation of the Toll/IL-1R signal pathway via MyD88. (pnas.org)
  • Transfected hTLR9 and mTLR9 required distinct CpG motifs for signal initiation, implying they directly engage immunostimulatory CpG-DNA in a species-specific manner. (pnas.org)
  • The expected yield of genomic DNA will vary depending on the cell density of the bacterial culture and the bacterial species and strain used. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • TLR9-deficient (TLR9-/-) mice did not show any response to CpG DNA, including proliferation of splenocytes, inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and maturation of dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • TLR9-/- mice showed resistance to the lethal effect of CpG DNA without any elevation of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. (nih.gov)
  • However, the bacterial determinants that stimulate either inflammatory or lymphocyte-dependent innate immune responses are poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Much of the tissue damage associated with P. aeruginosa infections of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung epithelia is due to inflammatory responses of the host immune system, which may include responses to bacterial DNA ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular activation by CpG-DNA occurs via the IL-1R/TLR signal transduction pathway because it depends on MyD88 and TRAF-6, implying that the CpG-DNA signaling receptor utilizes a TIR domain ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The demand for rapid and sensitive bacterial detection is continuously increasing due to the significant requirements of various applications. (rsc.org)
  • In this study, a terahertz (THz) biosensor based on rolling circle amplification (RCA) was developed for the isothermal detection of bacterial DNA. (rsc.org)
  • The proposed strategy not only represents a new method for the isothermal detection of the target bacterial DNA but also provides a general methodology for sensitive and specific DNA biosensing using THz spectroscopy. (rsc.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that the mammalian immune system is stimulated by DNA containing six base pair motifs consisting of an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide flanked by two 5′-purines and two 3′-pyrimidines (reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recognizing that the cell types and cytokines important in an early protective immune response to LVS and L. monocytogenes were the same as those stimulated by bacterial DNA, we hypothesized that host recognition of bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs contributes significantly to the stimulation of innate protective immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Their DNA isn't as compacted as eukaryotic DNA, as we'll see soon, but it is compacted. (sciblogs.co.nz)
  • We assessed whether CD64 index, a biomarker of bacterial infection, can be used to exclude patients with a low probability of systemic bacterial infection. (hindawi.com)
  • These include IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6, which are important in the control of intracellular bacterial infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • I wonder which protocol should I follow, since I am not working with bacterial suspensions proper, and in the other hand I do not want to miss gram positives due to lysis failure. (protocol-online.org)
  • This kit uses optimized lysis condition and up to 1 x 10^9 bacterial cells can be processed for each column. (omegabiotek.com)
  • Following lysis, binding conditions are adjusted and the sample is applied to a HiBind DNA spin-column. (omegabiotek.com)
  • The source of this DNA is unclear, but it is presumably derived from membrane vesicles rather than cell lysis as we saw no evidence of the latter during biofilm formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA was extracted in duplicate from each of the following samples: sample 1 from S. aureus , sample 2 from B. subtilis and sample 3 from P. aeruginosa . (omegabiotek.com)
  • Formation of these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antibiotics and host immune attack are at the root of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections ( 1 ), including those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which has been intensively studied as a model for biofilm formation ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • During studies of alginate biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa , we discovered that the majority of the extracellular material that reacted in the carbazole colorimetric assay was not exopolysaccharide but DNA [as determined by its peak absorbance at 260 nm, by electrophoretic display, and by its deoxyribonuclease (DNase) but not ribonuclease sensitivity] and therefore hypothesized that this DNA may play a functional role in P. aeruginosa biofilms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phenol chloroform will likely get everything with DNA in it, while the kits may miss things. (protocol-online.org)
  • TLR2 and TLR4 transduce signal via their Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR) and are the receptors for responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components ( 3 , 6 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • According to findings of Professor Zsolt Balohh and his team at University of Newcastle (Australia), mitochondrial DNA is the leading cause of severe inflammation due to a massive amount of Mitochondrial DNA that leaks into the blood stream due to cell death into the blood stream of patients that survived major trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using a novel subtraction broad-range PCR approach, we defined bacterial DNA signatures in surgically removed sterile carotid artery endarterectomy plaques of patients with carotid atherosclerosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The trick is that a DNA molecule is very skinny - it's only about 2 nanometers wide (2 billionths of a metre wide). (sciblogs.co.nz)
  • Using a tube ring assay ( 2 ), we found that addition of DNase I to the culture medium strongly inhibited biofilm formation (Web fig. 1A) ( 7 ), although not bacterial growth per se. (sciencemag.org)
  • The in vivo CpG-DNA-mediated T-helper type-1 response was also abolished in TLR9-/- mice. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed TLR9-deficient mice express a nonresponsive phenotype to CpG-DNA, which suggests murine TLR9 (mTLR9) is a CpG-DNA receptor ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial DNA may integrate into the human genome more readily in tumors than in normal human tissue, scientists have found. (nsf.gov)
  • DNA and RNA is ready for qPCR, RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing, while protein is ready for 1D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry following in-gel trypsin digestion. (qiagen.com)
  • This domain is the binding site for the antibacterial drug rifampin (and its analogues) which blocks the DNA/RNA tunnel and prevents initiation of transcription. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The phenomenon might play a role in cancer and other diseases associated with DNA damage. (nsf.gov)
  • The common bacterial base modification N6-methyladenine (m6A) is involved in many pathways related to an organism's ability to survive and interact with its environment. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Our DNA, all 2 metres of it, were you to stretch it out end-to-end - is fitted within a nucleus with a diameter of roughly 6-10 micrometres, about one- millionth of a metre. (sciblogs.co.nz)
  • The 3-D structure of the human genome, shown in a stretch of DNA inside a fractal globule. (nsf.gov)
  • The researchers found that while only 63.5 percent of TCGA samples analyzed were from tumors, the tumor samples contained 99.9 percent of reads supporting bacterial integration. (nsf.gov)
  • Jiande Gu and Jerzy Leszczynski and colleagues from Jackson State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences ran a computational study that revealed that the base-stacking structure of DNA could increase the resistance of the arsenate towards hydrolysis, compared with current arsenate models. (rsc.org)