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  • PMID
  • In C-5-cytosine Mtases, ten conserved motifs are arranged in the same order [ PMID: 8127644 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, sequence comparison among N-6-adenine and N-4-cytosine Mtases indicated two of the conserved segments [ PMID: 2690010 ], although more conserved segments may be present. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One of them corresponds to motif I in C-5-cytosine Mtases, and the other is named (D/N/S)PP(Y/F). Crystal structures are known for a number of Mtases [ PMID: 7607476 , PMID: 8343957 , PMID: 8127644 , PMID: 7971991 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The structure of the Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis receptor methyltransferase CheR, bound to S-adenosylhomocysteine, has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 A [ PMID: 9115443 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • epigenetic
  • Such function is to be distinguished from maintenance DNA methylation which ensures the fidelity of replication of inherited epigenetic patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • While de novo DNA methylation modifies the information passed on by the parent to the progeny, it enables key epigenetic modifications essential for processes such as cellular differentiation and embryonic development, transcriptional regulation, heterochromatin formation, X-inactivation, imprinting and genome stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNMT3L is one of the key players in de novo DNA methylation of imprinting control elements and retrotransposons, which occurs after genome-wide epigenetic erasure during germ cell development. (nih.gov)
  • DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) gene polymorphisms could be a primary event in epigenetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
  • In epigenetic alterations in cancer, DNA methylation is the most studied, although it is not the only alteration that can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • A consensus definition of the concept of epigenetic trait as "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence" was formulated at a Cold Spring Harbor meeting in 2008, although alternate definitions that include non-heritable traits are still being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone methyltransferases are critical for genetic regulation at the epigenetic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In order to test the model that Dcm-mediated cytosine DNA methylation directly influences gene expression in and identify new genes impacted by DNA methylation we analyzed the transcriptome in the absence and presence of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)?treatment. (livingseas.org)
  • This occurs mostly at the cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide rich regions, known as CpG islands, and are located particularly in the promoter regions of genes in the human genome (Patino et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various genes targeted by promoter hypermethylation in malignant melanoma Some of the genes affected by cytosine methylation in melanoma formation INK4A INK4A, also known as p16, is a tumor suppressor gene and is found to have hypermethylated promotor regions in 10- 20% of melanoma cells and is involved in 40- 87% of gene alterations in melanoma cases (Gonzalgo et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 3 types of tumor suppressor genes: Genes that affect cell growth Genes that limit the cell cycle and induce apoptosis Genes that repair damaged DNA SFRP1 appears to fall in the first category of genes, those that affect cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • HhaI DNA
  • Crystal structure of the HhaI DNA methyltransferase complexed with S-adenosyl-L-methionine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Upon crystallization of the M. HhaI-DNA complex, they saw the target cytosine base was rotated completely out of the double helix and was positioned in the active site of the M. HhaI. (wikipedia.org)
  • uracil
  • Research has demonstrated both mechanisms: uracil-DNA glycosylase follows the passive mechanism and Tn10 transposase follows the active mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of base excision repair occurs when a cytosine base is deaminated and becomes a uracil base. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes a U:G mispair which is detected by Uracil DNA glycosylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uracil base is flipped out into the glycosylase active pocket where it is removed from the DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bisulfite sequencing-based methods, despite possible single-nucleotide resolution, have a drawback: the conversion of unmethylated cytosine to uracil can be unstable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2015, NASA scientists reported the formation of cytosine, along with uracil and thymine, from pyrimidine under the space-like laboratory conditions, which is of interest because pyrimidine has been found in meteorites although its origin is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • When found third in a codon of RNA, cytosine is synonymous with uracil, as they are interchangeable as the third base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosine likely formed within some meteorite parent bodies, however did not persist within these bodies due to an effective deamination reaction into uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.37
  • MTases can be divided into three different groups on the basis of the chemical reactions they catalyze: m6A - those that generate N6-methyladenine EC 2.1.1.72 m4C - those that generate N4-methylcytosine EC 2.1.1.113 m5C - those that generate C5-methylcytosine EC 2.1.1.37 m6A and m4C methyltransferases are found primarily in prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • The various aspects of the role of DNA methylation in prokaryotic restriction-modification systems and in a number of cellular processes in eukaryotes including gene regulation and differentiation is well documented. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regions
  • Currently, the major research interest lies in investigating disease conditions such as cancer to identify regions of the DNA that has undergone extensive methylation changes. (wikipedia.org)