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  • strands
  • The type I restriction and modification system is composed of three polypeptides R, M and S. The M (hsdM) and S subunits together form a methyltransferase that methylates two adenine residues in complementary strands of a bipartite DNA recognition sequence . (wikipedia.org)
  • When the target site is hemimethylated, the complex acts as a maintenance methyltransferase, modifying the DNA so that both strands become methylated . (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants and other organisms, DNA methylation is found in three different sequence contexts: CG (or CpG ), CHG or CHH (where H correspond to A, T or C). In mammals however, DNA methylation is almost exclusively found in CpG dinucleotides, with the cytosines on both strands being usually methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a "relaxed" double-helical segment of B-DNA, the two strands twist around the helical axis once every 10.4-10.5 base pairs of sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is well-suited to nanoscale construction because the binding between two nucleic acid strands depends on simple base pairing rules which are well understood, and form the specific nanoscale structure of the nucleic acid double helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA nanotechnology, the base sequences of strands are rationally designed by researchers so that the base pairing interactions cause the strands to assemble in the desired conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 6.5.1.1) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays a role in repairing single-strand breaks in duplex DNA in living organisms, but some forms (such as DNA ligase IV) may specifically repair double-strand breaks (i.e. a break in both complementary strands of DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • We present here nuclear DNA sequences from this molar and a morphological description, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from another molar from Denisova Cave, thus extending the number of Denisovan individuals known to three. (pnas.org)
  • Here we present nuclear DNA sequences from Denisova 4 and a morphological description, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, from another molar ( Denisova 8) found in Denisova Cave in 2010. (pnas.org)
  • These enzymes are responsible for the methylation of specific DNA sequences in order to prevent the host from digesting its own genome via its restriction enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • By synthesizing DNA on silicon instead of on traditional plastic plates, cost-effective, high-quality synthesis of genes , gene fragments, oligo pools and variant libraries (groups of gene sequences) for antibody and protein engineering , as well as consumable products for next-generation sequencing is enabled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis , biotechnology , forensic biology , virology and biological systematics . (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid speed of sequencing attained with modern DNA sequencing technology has been instrumental in the sequencing of complete DNA sequences, or genomes of numerous types and species of life, including the human genome and other complete DNA sequences of many animal, plant, and microbial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Montagnier and his collaborators published a paper titled "Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences" in which they showed that bacterial DNA can produce electromagnetic signal (EMS) that is transferred through the cell culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • DNA sequencing is also the most efficient way to sequence RNA or proteins (via their open reading frames ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) was first discovered and isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, but it remained understudied for many decades because proteins, rather than DNA, were thought to hold the genetic blueprint to life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then this process succeeds the macromolecular translocation from Agrobacterium to cytoplasm of host cell, transmission of T-DNA along with associated proteins (called T-complex) to the host cell nucleus followed by disassembly of the T-complex, stable integration of T-DNA into host plant genome, and expression of the transferred genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, single stranded binding proteins attach to the single stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA usually lacks tertiary structure and therefore damage or disturbance does not occur at that level. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is, however, supercoiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may express wildtype protein, prevent the expression of certain genes by expressing competitors or inhibitors, or express mutant proteins, such as deletion mutations or missense mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct is often used in molecular biology to analyze macromolecules such as proteins or RNA in more detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • one successful approach, for example, tested T4 DNA ligase fused to several alternative DNA binding proteins and found that the constructs with either p50 or NF-kB as fusion partners were over 160% more active in blunt-end ligations for cloning purposes than wild type T4 DNA ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Artificial gene synthesis is the process of synthesizing a gene in vitro without the need for initial template DNA samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted introduction of exogenous DNA is used to identify genes because the introduced DNA can act cause a mutation or altered expression of the gene into which it inserts. (wikipedia.org)
  • When located in a gene promoter , DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription . (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2016, researchers used the CRISPR gene-editing system to insert a GIF of a galloping horse and rider into the DNA of living bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetic engineering, the tumor-promoting and opine-synthesis genes are removed from the T-DNA and replaced with a gene of interest and/or a selection marker, which is required to establish which plants have been successfully transformed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nick creates a region of single stranded DNA from the left border of the T-DNA gene over to the right border which was cut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supercoiling is important in a number of biological processes, such as compacting DNA, and by regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism and possibly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging within all cells, and seems to also play a role in gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). (wikipedia.org)
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA constructs often consist of a promoter sequence, followed a by a desired gene, and ended in a transcription termination or polyadenylation signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may contain a DNA insert, which contains the gene sequence encoding a protein of interest, that has been subcloned into a vector, which contains bacterial resistance genes for growth in bacteria, and promoters for expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified DNA ligase is used in gene cloning to join DNA molecules together to form recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E. coli DNA ligase is encoded by the lig gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by alternative splicing of a proteolytic fragment of DNA ligase III and does not have its own gene, therefore it is often considered to be virtually identical to DNA ligase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • In 2000, the seven member Commission approved the modern artwork Digital DNA for the 0.2-acre (810 m2) plaza on the corner of University Avenue and Emerson Street. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital DNA was commissioned in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • For their work on the magazines, DNA Publications was a 2000 World Fantasy Award nominee, in the "special award: professional" category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes , larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons ), full chromosomes or entire genomes , of any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a form of genetic testing , though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase chain re
  • This signal can supposedly be recorded, transmitted electronically, and re-emitted on another distant pure water sample, where DNA can replicate through polymerase chain reaction despite the absence of the original DNA in the new water sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of bacterial DNA was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Every year from 2003 onward, annual DNA Day celebrations have been organized by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), starting as early as April 23 in 2010, April 15 in 2011 and April 20 in 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-DNA is transferred from bacterium into the host plant's nuclear DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium is then used as a vector to transfer the engineered T-DNA into the plant cells where it integrates into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration of T-DNA into a host genome involves the formation of a nick at the right border of the Ti plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the integration of T-DNA into the target host genome, Agrobacterium carries out multiple interactions with host-plant factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • Testing DNA is a technique which can detect specific genomes in a DNA strand to produce a unique and individualized pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium vir genes expression occurs via the VirA-VirG sensor that results in generation of a mobile single-stranded T-DNA copy (T-strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several assembly methods are used to make these structures, including tile-based structures that assemble from smaller structures, folding structures using the DNA origami method, and dynamically reconfigurable structures using strand displacement methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-strand breaks are repaired by DNA ligase using the complementary strand of the double helix as a template, with DNA ligase creating the final phosphodiester bond to fully repair the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase I: ligates the nascent DNA of the lagging strand after the Ribonuclease H has removed the RNA primer from the Okazaki fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the final step in the non-homologous end joining DNA double-strand break repair pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Bacteria need to be in a certain physiological state to successfully take up exogenous DNA, which is described as one of competence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria can also be made competent through a variety of chemical treatments including exposure to calcium ions, or a mixture of polyethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide , which make the cell membrane more permeable, leading to the uptake of the exogenous DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used the DNA of bacteria Micoplasma pirum and Escherichia coli cultured in a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenine
  • The m6A methyltransferases (N-6 adenine-specific DNA methylase) (A-Mtase) are enzymes that specifically methylate the amino group at the C-6 position of adenines in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • On August 20, 2016 at the Devo fan gathering, DEVOtional 2016, Delaney Jae of Futurismo, announced they would be re-issuing Recombo DNA with new art to accompany it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant cell to grow uncontrollably, thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA synthesis displaces the single stranded region and then a second nick at the left border region releases the single stranded T-DNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this is not practical yet due to the current state of DNA synthesis and sequencing, these technologies are improving quite rapidly with advances in the biotech industry. (microsoft.com)
  • bacterial
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, Montagnier's team published another finding similar to the original one, but using bacterial and viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the solution was simply incubated for two or three weeks, the bacterial DNA was detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • The nuclear DNA sequence diversity among the Denisovans is higher than among Neandertals, but lower than among present-day humans. (pnas.org)
  • Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA packaging is greatly increased during nuclear division events such as mitosis or meiosis, where DNA must be compacted and segregated to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • In the presence of the R subunit, the complex can also act as an endonuclease , binding to the same target sequence but cutting the DNA some distance from this site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the DNA is cut or modified depends on the methylation state of the target sequence . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently while taking care of critically important factors like the genotype of plants, types and ages of tissues inoculated, kind of vectors, strains of Agrobacterium, selection marker genes and selective agents, and various conditions of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • But unless they find a second child with the same symptoms, and a similar DNA error, his doctors can't zero in on which mistake in Noah's genes is the crucial one. (technologyreview.com)
  • That is because scientists think they'll need to sort through a million genomes or more to solve cases-like Noah's-that could involve a single rogue DNA letter, or to make discoveries about the genetics of common diseases that involve a complex combination of genes. (technologyreview.com)
  • Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • In biochemistry , the DNA methyltransferase ( DNA MTase ) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, unveiled a programmable molecular computing machine composed of enzymes and DNA molecules instead of silicon microchips. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many topoisomerase enzymes sense supercoiling and either generate or dissipate it as they change DNA topology. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • Montagnier's experiment can be summarised as follows: A known water sample with 2 ng/ml of 104 bases DNA from an HIV infected patient is diluted by 10 into water and agitated for 15 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyltransferases
  • All the known DNA methyltransferases use S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation as well as many of its contemporary DNA methyltransferases has been thought to evolve from early world primitive RNA methylation activity and is supported by several lines of evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is to be transplanted into a target tissue or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field's name specifically references DNA, but the same principles have been used with other types of nucleic acids as well, leading to the occasional use of the alternative name nucleic acid nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA is the dominant material used, structures incorporating other nucleic acids such as RNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) have also been constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology, sometimes abbreviated as SDN, focuses on synthesizing and characterizing nucleic acid complexes and materials that assemble into a static, equilibrium end state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexes constructed in structural DNA nanotechnology use topologically branched nucleic acid structures containing junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this capsid protein is included in the DNA, the resulting vaccine can combine the potency of a live vaccine without reversion risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In that study, Sytox Orange (an intercalating dye), has been used to induce supercoiling on surface tethered DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA , biochemistry , and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragments
  • NEBuilder HiFi DNA Assembly enables virtually error-free joining of DNA fragments, even those with 5´- and 3´-end mismatches. (neb.com)
  • For this purpose, different DNA-fragments were created, each one of them representing a city that had to be visited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reorganization of activity site such as nicks in DNA segments or Okazaki fragments etc. 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA-fragments were produced and mixed in a test tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a chemical reaction (that lasts a few days), the DNA-fragments representing the longer routes were eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • base pairs
  • For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs and would be 85 mm long if straightened. (wikipedia.org)
  • enables
  • This project enables molecular-level data storage into DNA molecules by leveraging biotechnology advances in synthesizing, manipulating and sequencing DNA to develop archival storage. (microsoft.com)
  • Exogenous
  • The introduction of exogenous DNA into a cell is called transformation ( transfection in animal cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoadduct damage cause by change in single nitrogenous base of DNA Diadduct damage Damage caused by exogenous agents comes in many forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is associated with a number of key processes including genomic imprinting , X-chromosome inactivation , repression of transposable elements , aging , and carcinogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, around 60-80% of CpG are methylated in somatic cells and DNA methylation appears as a default state that has to be specifically excluded from defined locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • The optimal incubation temperature for T4 DNA ligase is 16 °C. In mammals, there are four specific types of ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • transformation
  • Compatible with downstream applications - DNA can be used immediately for transformation or as template for PCR or RCA. (neb.com)
  • segment
  • If a DNA segment under twist strain were closed into a circle by joining its two ends and then allowed to move freely, the circular DNA would contort into a new shape, such as a simple figure-eight. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • The simple figure eight is the simplest supercoil, and is the shape a circular DNA assumes to accommodate one too many or one too few helical twists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lobal contortions of a circular DNA, such as the rotation of the figure-eight lobes above, are referred to as writhe. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitates
  • Family Tree DNA facilitates genealogy DNA projects on the Y-DNA descended male side of the family, because the Y-DNA follows the traditional lines of surname descent. (angelfire.com)