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  • cellular
  • It was tempting to study the role of gene expression dynamics in carcinogenesis not only in cultured cells but also in multi-cellular organisms such as animals based on availability of published gene expression profiling data. (omicsonline.org)
  • All organisms (single and multi-cellular) rely upon reiteration of growth and division of existing cells under favorable conditions. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cells require a full and functional cellular machinery to live. (wikipedia.org)
  • These communications between cells triggers intracellular signaling cascades, termed signal transduction pathways, that regulate specific cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Based on publicly available gene expression profiling data, one unique pattern for cancer embryonic stem cell-like attractors was identified alongside deficiency of Mi-2/NuRD and its partner's chromatin remodel systems (CRS) critical for germline-reactivated cancers, and particularly extendable to deficiency of regulatory components of cell-cycle and cell-division. (omicsonline.org)
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their study, a set of C2C12 cells were cultured from mice homozygous recessive for the dy gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • The cell cycle is split up into four major phases based on the events unfolding in the cell. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Therefore, the major checkpoint in the cell cycle is the restriction (R) point between G1 and S phases, prior to DNA duplication, at which the cycle progresses depending on mitogenic or inhibitory factors such as DNA damage and signals from various signaling pathways. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Activation of specific cyclin-CDK complexes are characteristic for the different cell cycle phases, and drive production of specific molecules associated with, and necessary for that phase of division. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The cell cycle is a series of complex, ordered, sequential events that control how a single cell divides into two cells, and involves several different phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • Our novel platforms and products include antibodies, tools for flow cytometry, fluorescent cell dyes and stains, and cell cycle related immunoassays. (thermofisher.com)
  • Flow cytometry, in conjunction with modeling algorithms, provides a powerful tool to assess cells in G0/G1 phase versus S phase, G2, or polyploidy in live and fixed cell populations. (thermofisher.com)
  • daughter
  • During each round of this process, the cell cycles through an ordered series of events in which its genetic information is duplicated and then divided among two daughter cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer alters the DNA of cells and the mutated genetic material is passed on to daughter cells, resulting in neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other daughter, called the "stalked" cell has a tubular stalk structure protruding from one pole that has an adhesive holdfast material on its end, with which the stalked cell can adhere to surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many, perhaps most, of the swarmer daughter cells will not find a productive environment, but the obligate dispersal stage must increase the reproductive fitness of the species as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies revealed that the dye can be used to monitor lymphocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ
  • In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • The intracellular accumulation of highly phosphorylated tau is linked to the cell cycle and cell cycle dependent kinases (McShea et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, perhaps the most important CFSE investigations have been those demonstrating that many of the effector functions of lymphocytes, such as cytokine production by T lymphocytes, and antibody class switching by B cells, are division dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • 1998). The cell cycle hypothesis of AD also attempts to explain for the characteristic senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles of AD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • further elaborated the cell attractor theory of genetic regulatory network (GRN) with experimental example and then coined the hypothetic "cancer attractors" [ 2 , 4 ] and thus it caught good attentions [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • tumors
  • Mast cell tumors are the most common type of skin cancer in canines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boxers, Boston Terriers and Golden Retrievers are among the breeds that most commonly develop mast cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the proliferation behaviour of different lymphocyte subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The introduction of adhesion molecules can alter the growth pattern of C2C12 cells to a longitudinal distribution exhibiting polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples, via its succinimidyl group, to intracellular molecules, notably, to intracellular lysine residues and other amine sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinomas
  • Xanthatin functions as a DNA-damaging agent in non-small cell lung carcinomas by activating Chk1-mediated DDR and lysosome-mediated degradation of Cdc25C. (nih.gov)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • Methods
  • After analyzing different methods for assessing cell damage, the best results were obtained from optimal approaches that could provide information regarding the cell disruption level after freezing-thawing and could be considered for future studies. (wordpress.com)
  • A useful benefit of including this instruction is that it allows an efficient software implementation of division (see division algorithm) and square root (see methods of computing square roots) operations, thus eliminating the need for dedicated hardware for those operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Eusocial behavior is associated with cooperative nesting and brood care, an overlap in adult generations, and a division of social roles, marked by intracolony reproductive hierarchies. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • This complexity in sensory coding, which the team speculates may help the brain rapidly make highly accurate odor distinctions, became evident when the team used beams of light to activate highly specialized cells within the olfactory bulb, as prelude to measuring their electrical activity during single respiratory cycles. (photonics.com)
  • This is a bit like flying blind - you can record the electrical activity of any cells you happen to hit, but you had no way of controlling which cells you would be recording from. (photonics.com)
  • The scientists were also able to identify and monitor activity of "nonsister" mitral cells, ones whose firing activity is fundamentally dissimilar because of the comparatively wide contrast in the odors that their glomeruli report. (photonics.com)
  • human
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different
  • Different cell stressors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • JUPITER, FL, June 26, 2008-Scientists from Scripps Florida, a division of The Scripps Research Institute, have shown for the first time that a specialized form of RNA is directly linked to increased levels of amyloid plaque in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. (scripps.edu)
  • SC-Y200 ventilator can work with some innovative ventilation modes, e.g., constant flow mode, pressure limit mode and time cycle ventilation mode, and also supports PEEP and IMV functions. (cima-medical.com)
  • However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • How can this occur within the brief span of a single respiratory cycle - one inhalation and one exhalation? (photonics.com)
  • decrease
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • turn
  • The glomeruli each have about 15,000 axons feeding into them, and each, in turn, signals via primary dendrites to mitral cells. (photonics.com)
  • This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • known
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • total
  • Chromosome 7 spans about 159 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 5 and 5.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • In the study, Wahlestedt and his colleagues exposed cells to a number of them including hyperthermia, serum starvation, and two forms of amyloid β, hydrogen peroxide and high glucose. (scripps.edu)
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Cells with the same sensitivity report their signals to a single specialized spherical unit - literally a ball of synapses - in the mouse's olfactory bulb. (photonics.com)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some machines combine multiple fused multiply add operations into a single step, e.g. performing a four-element dot-product on two 128-bit SIMD registers a0×b0+a1×b1+a2×b2+a3×b3 with single cycle throughput. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevent
  • The body therefore naturally produces anti-oxidants that neutralise "sweep up" these free radicals to prevent cells from becoming damaged but often not in sufficient quantities. (totalhealth.co.uk)
  • system
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)