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  • quiescent
  • Depending on the identity of a cell and the information it receives from its environment, it can grow (increase in size), proliferate (make more cells), become quiescent (stop growing and dividing), differentiate (make different types of cells), or die. (merlot.org)
  • Cells that are not actively dividing are considered to be in a quiescent state in the resting phase G0. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Pathway
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • The cell cycle is split up into four major phases based on the events unfolding in the cell. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Therefore, the major checkpoint in the cell cycle is the restriction (R) point between G1 and S phases, prior to DNA duplication, at which the cycle progresses depending on mitogenic or inhibitory factors such as DNA damage and signals from various signaling pathways. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Activation of specific cyclin-CDK complexes are characteristic for the different cell cycle phases, and drive production of specific molecules associated with, and necessary for that phase of division. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The cell cycle is a series of complex, ordered, sequential events that control how a single cell divides into two cells, and involves several different phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • Our novel platforms and products include antibodies, tools for flow cytometry, fluorescent cell dyes and stains, and cell cycle related immunoassays. (thermofisher.com)
  • Flow cytometry, in conjunction with modeling algorithms, provides a powerful tool to assess cells in G0/G1 phase versus S phase, G2, or polyploidy in live and fixed cell populations. (thermofisher.com)
  • bacteria
  • Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life, Bacteria and Eukaryota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very strange shapes, such as the flat and square-shaped cells of Haloquadratum walsbyi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • It is induced by p53 in response to DNA damage, or by sublytic levels of complement system proteins that result in activation of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Cell cycle-dependent Cdc25C phosphatase determines cell survival by regulating apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons subject to loss of synaptic connections, chronic exposure to oxidative stress or stress hormones like glucocorticoids will exit G0 and reenter into a cell cycle that is abortive and leads to cell death through apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the cell is unable to complete the cell cycle, it dies via apoptosis (Meikrantz et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007). Other aberrations in cell cycle dynamics influence cell senescence, oxidative stress, and misregulated apoptosis (Franco et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The intracellular accumulation of highly phosphorylated tau is linked to the cell cycle and cell cycle dependent kinases (McShea et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples, via its succinimidyl group, to intracellular molecules, notably, to intracellular lysine residues and other amine sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ
  • In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • It is well-known that many cancers show with embryonic stem cell-like signatures. (omicsonline.org)
  • Based on publicly available gene expression profiling data, one unique pattern for cancer embryonic stem cell-like attractors was identified alongside deficiency of Mi-2/NuRD and its partner's chromatin remodel systems (CRS) critical for germline-reactivated cancers, and particularly extendable to deficiency of regulatory components of cell-cycle and cell-division. (omicsonline.org)
  • Many cancers have embryonic stem cell- like signatures [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • organism
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • I found the simplest organism I could, and set out to learn how the multiple components of a living cell work together. (wikipedia.org)
  • For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction - an entire new organism is created. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Different species have different numbers of chromosomes in their cells. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, the chromosomes are ready to split into opposite poles of the cell towards the spindle to which they are connected. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, the spindle fibers will pull them apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Developed for in vitro studies of myoblasts isolated from the complex interactions of in vivo conditions, C2C12 cells have gained significant utility in the biomedical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preclinical studies on volasertib have demonstrated that it is highly effective at binding to and blocking PLK1 function and causing programmed cell death in colon and non-small cell lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • 1998). The cell cycle hypothesis of AD also attempts to explain for the characteristic senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles of AD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Other CMM faculty study the interactions between cell cycle/cell division machinery and diverse DNA repair pathways (Kolodner, Zhou), and the roles of this machinery in development and disease (Dowdy, Goldstein, Spector). (ucsd.edu)
  • Several additional cell signaling pathways are also essential to the proper functioning of this cell cycle engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Raised levels of PLK1 have been associated with a poorer prognosis and overall survival in some cancers In addition to its role in cell division, there is evidence that PLK1 also interacts with components of other pathways involved in cancer development including the K-Ras oncogene and the retinoblastoma and p53 tumour suppressors These observations have led to PLK1 being recognised as an important target in the treatment of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five master regulatory proteins are synthesized and then eliminated from the cell one after the other over the course of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in cell shape, cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion sites of cultured cells after extracellular Ca2+ chelation" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The microtubule grows from discrete assembly sites in the cells called Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), which are a network of microtubule associated proteins (MAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • However, perhaps the most important CFSE investigations have been those demonstrating that many of the effector functions of lymphocytes, such as cytokine production by T lymphocytes, and antibody class switching by B cells, are division dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • The rate of muscle formation from C2C12 cells can be controlled by the introduction of loss-of-functions genes vital for the fusion of myoblasts and myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • divisions
  • The human body experiences about 10 quadrillion cell divisions in a lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when CFSE labelling is performed optimally, approximately 7-8 cell divisions can be identified before the CFSE fluorescence is too low to be distinguished above the autofluorescence background. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The introduction of adhesion molecules can alter the growth pattern of C2C12 cells to a longitudinal distribution exhibiting polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • daughter
  • The other daughter, called the "stalked" cell has a tubular stalk structure protruding from one pole that has an adhesive holdfast material on its end, with which the stalked cell can adhere to surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many, perhaps most, of the swarmer daughter cells will not find a productive environment, but the obligate dispersal stage must increase the reproductive fitness of the species as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • survival
  • The use of 5% dymethyl sulfoxide as a cryoprotectant resulted in greater cell survival and a scarcity of destroyed cells lacking cytosol among dead cells. (wordpress.com)
  • Methods
  • After analyzing different methods for assessing cell damage, the best results were obtained from optimal approaches that could provide information regarding the cell disruption level after freezing-thawing and could be considered for future studies. (wordpress.com)
  • A useful benefit of including this instruction is that it allows an efficient software implementation of division (see division algorithm) and square root (see methods of computing square roots) operations, thus eliminating the need for dedicated hardware for those operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Eusocial behavior is associated with cooperative nesting and brood care, an overlap in adult generations, and a division of social roles, marked by intracolony reproductive hierarchies. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • JUPITER, FL, June 26, 2008-Scientists from Scripps Florida, a division of The Scripps Research Institute, have shown for the first time that a specialized form of RNA is directly linked to increased levels of amyloid plaque in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. (scripps.edu)
  • SC-Y200 ventilator can work with some innovative ventilation modes, e.g., constant flow mode, pressure limit mode and time cycle ventilation mode, and also supports PEEP and IMV functions. (cima-medical.com)
  • However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This represented the first case where the position of a gene in the chromosome had demonstrable biological significance, and prompted Nasmyth to abandon work on the cell cycle for a time and concentrate instead on studying gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • This complexity in sensory coding, which the team speculates may help the brain rapidly make highly accurate odor distinctions, became evident when the team used beams of light to activate highly specialized cells within the olfactory bulb, as prelude to measuring their electrical activity during single respiratory cycles. (photonics.com)
  • This is a bit like flying blind - you can record the electrical activity of any cells you happen to hit, but you had no way of controlling which cells you would be recording from. (photonics.com)
  • The scientists were also able to identify and monitor activity of "nonsister" mitral cells, ones whose firing activity is fundamentally dissimilar because of the comparatively wide contrast in the odors that their glomeruli report. (photonics.com)
  • human
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different
  • Different cell stressors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • How can this occur within the brief span of a single respiratory cycle - one inhalation and one exhalation? (photonics.com)
  • decrease
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • turn
  • The glomeruli each have about 15,000 axons feeding into them, and each, in turn, signals via primary dendrites to mitral cells. (photonics.com)
  • This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • known
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • total
  • Chromosome 7 spans about 159 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 5 and 5.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • In the study, Wahlestedt and his colleagues exposed cells to a number of them including hyperthermia, serum starvation, and two forms of amyloid β, hydrogen peroxide and high glucose. (scripps.edu)
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Cells with the same sensitivity report their signals to a single specialized spherical unit - literally a ball of synapses - in the mouse's olfactory bulb. (photonics.com)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some machines combine multiple fused multiply add operations into a single step, e.g. performing a four-element dot-product on two 128-bit SIMD registers a0×b0+a1×b1+a2×b2+a3×b3 with single cycle throughput. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevent
  • The body therefore naturally produces anti-oxidants that neutralise "sweep up" these free radicals to prevent cells from becoming damaged but often not in sufficient quantities. (totalhealth.co.uk)
  • system
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)