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  • organs
  • Cancer cells may also disseminate from the primary tumor through the lymphatic system, although the lack of direct flow from the lymphatic system to other organs means that tumor cells escaping via this route must still enter the vascular system in order to be distributed to distant organs [ 3 , 4 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • lymphatic
  • Lymphatic vessels are mainly regarded as passive conduits for the dissemination of cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In situ laser capture microdissection of lymphatic vessels followed by cDNA microarray analysis was used to determine the expression profiling of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • Disease relapse is common, suggesting that early disseminated disease is already present in the regional lymph nodes at the time of surgery, and that the current nodal staging classification might be suboptimal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • relapse
  • However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. (hindawi.com)
  • progression
  • Identification of these cells has a crucial value in the disease course and it's progression and in monitoring of chemotherapy. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • Cytokines which may affect the cancer progression are tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), colony stimulating factors (such as M-CSF (CSF-1)), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and others. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • It was found that TNF-α is expressed at very low incidence in normal breast epithelial cells but it incidence is significantly elevated in tumor cells which suggest progression-related roles TNF-α in BC . (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • patients
  • Tumor cells circulate in the peripheral blood of all major carcinomas but not in healthy subjects or patients with nonmalignant diseases. (springer.com)
  • Trafficking to tumor tissues was confirmed in a tumor biopsy from one of three patients. (springer.com)
  • A subset of patients had 111 Indium-labeled CART72 cells injected, and trafficking could be detected to liver, but T cells appeared largely excluded from large metastatic deposits. (springer.com)
  • BM aspirates from 32 carcinoma patients were screened for the presence of micrometastatic cells positive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule and positive for cytokeratins, using optimized immunodetection methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The accurate detection of these cells may therefore provide additional information for early diagnosis, and may help clinicians to select patients for adjuvant therapy and to monitor patients during follow-up. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Before WBH, 6 of 20 patients had cyto-keratin-positive cells in their blood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that WBH might induce a temporary release of tumor cells into the circulation, but this spread appears to be clinically not significant in patients with advanced malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, we were interested to investigate tumor cell spread in patients with different malignancies being treated with WBH in combination with chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • occult
  • These disseminated cells are present in circulation in extremely low concentrations, estimated to be in the range of one tumor cell in the background of 10 6 -10 7 normal blood cells and are occult to routine imaging and laboratory studies ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • blood
  • In this study we used an immunomagnetic selection technique to develop an enrichment model for disseminated tumor cells in blood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The 2-step protocol was developed for processing 20 mL blood and based on red blood cell lysis followed by leukocyte depletion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, these techniques can be employed under sterile conditions, allowing the enrichment of a small tumor cell population from peripheral blood, which may be grown in culture for functional investigations in order to elucidate their biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. (springer.com)
  • Because BM collection is invasive and inconvenient, many investigators have studied techniques to detect and characterize tumor cells in blood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, one must separate these rare cancer cells from billions of erythrocytes and millions of leucocytes present in 10 ml of blood, and then one must confirm that the identified 'event' is, indeed, a CTC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Liquid Biopsy of Ovarian Cancer: Issuing Diagnosis and Planning Therapies of Ovarian Cancers Based Upon Genome Sequencing and Gene Expression Profiling of Single Cells From Peritoneal Fluid and Blood. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • In this work, we present a new microarray-based high-throughput screening method to identifying candidate marker mRNAs for the early detection of epithelial cells diluted in peripheral blood cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The search for epithelial cells as a screening tool in the patient's blood represents an important field of research for early detection of epithelial cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detection of cancer cells in the blood could employ an epithelial-specific mRNA, which might be revealed in the patient's blood sample via amplification by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nascent blood vessels in the skin arise from nestin‐expressing hair follicle cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Blood samples spiked with Hep3B cells (ranging from 10 to 810 cells) were used to determine recovery and sensitivity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 8. Ashworth TR (1869): A case of cancer in which cells similar to those in the tumours were seen in the blood after death. (edu.pl)
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Methodology & results: CD44 expression was evaluated in 206 well-defined renal tumor samples using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. (uio.no)
  • cytometry
  • With FAST cytometry, laser-printing optics are used to excite 300,000 cells per sec, and emission is collected in an extremely wide field of view, enabling a 500-fold speed-up over ADM with comparable sensitivity and superior specificity. (pnas.org)