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  • vectors
  • Ship sanitation certificates can be of two types: Ship Sanitation Control Exemption Certificates (SSCEC) are issued to vessels that have passed flying fists that verifies that the ship is free of havdyr vectors, potential disease reservoirs or ill humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great diversity of infectious pathogens, their possible hosts, and the ways in which their hosts respond to infection has resulted in multiple definitions for "natural reservoir", many of which are conflicting or incomplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2002 conceptual exploration published in the CDC's Emerging Infectious Diseases, the natural reservoir of a given pathogen is defined as "one or more epidemiologically connected populations or environments in which the pathogen can be permanently maintained and from which infection is transmitted to the defined target population. (wikipedia.org)
  • 45:139-147 Burgess EC, French JrJB & Gendron-Fitzpatrick A. (1990) Systemic disease in Peromyscus leucopus associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hofmeister EK, Ellis BA, Glass GE & Childs JE (1999) Longitudinal study of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus at a Lyme disease-enzootic site in Maryland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease caused by a group of ruminant gamma herpes viruses including Alcelaphine gammaherpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and Ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) These viruses cause unapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (sheep with OvHV-2 and wildebeest with AlHV-1), but are usually fatal in cattle and other ungulates such as deer, antelope, and buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease outbreaks in cattle are usually sporadic although infection of up to 40% of a herd has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term bovine malignant catarrhal fever has been applied to three different patterns of disease: In Africa, wildebeests carry a lifelong infection of AlHV-1 but are not affected by the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle of all ages are susceptible to the disease, with a higher infection rate in adults, particularly in peripartuent females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, this disease is sometimes classified as a sexually transmitted infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) can cause significant economic loss in channel catfish farms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Management of the disease historically meant preventing infection by avoiding tree wounds, removing diseased trees and breaking root connections with vibratory plows, trenchers/rocksaws or hoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term sexually transmitted infection is generally preferred over sexually transmitted disease or venereal disease, as it includes those who do not have symptomatic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health officials originally introduced the term sexually transmitted infection, which clinicians are increasingly using alongside the term sexually transmitted disease in order to distinguish it from the former. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risks and transmission probabilities of sexually transmitted diseases are summarized by act in the table: Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), colloquially known as "the clap" Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis) Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma hominis Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) Ureaplasma infection Candidiasis (yeast infection) Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)-saliva, venereal fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerging Infectio
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases 8:662-667. (ku.edu)
  • The rapid decline in range and relative abundance of some wild North American bumble bee species, combined with the commercialization of bumble bee colonies as agricultural pollinators, and recent evidence that bumble bees can be infected by honey bee viruses, suggest the possibility that invasive and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) may play a substantial current and future role in the decline of wild bumble bee populations. (springer.com)
  • Some of the pathogens that infect honey bees and bumble bees such as Nosema cerenae , Apicystis bombi and DWV have been recently catalogued as emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) (Arbetman et al. (springer.com)
  • Emergence
  • 25:1564-1566 Anita Rogic, Nathalie Tessier, Pierre Legendre, François-Joseph Lapointe, Virginie Millien (2013) Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme
  • It has also been found to be a competent reservoir for the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • 42:254-259 Goodwin BJ, Ostfeld RS & Schauber EM (2001) Spatiotemporal variation in a Lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on white-footed mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989) Antibody response in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus ) experimental infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • Until the 1990s,[citation needed] STIs were commonly known as venereal diseases, the word venereal being derived from the Latin word venereus, and meaning relating to sexual intercourse or desire, ultimately derived from Venus, the Roman goddess of love. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemics
  • Since Snow's seminal work (1855), when cholera epidemics were first associated with a contaminated water supply, this disease has been the focus of intense study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sexually
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex or oral sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Zoonoses are defined by the World Health Organization as diseases and infections which are transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. (vin.com)
  • Natural
  • Because of the enormous variety of infectious microorganisms capable of causing disease, precise definitions for what constitutes a natural reservoir are numerous, various, and often conflicting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "multi-host" organism is capable of having more than one natural reservoir. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural host reservoir for Ovine herpesvirus 2 is the subfamily Caprinae (sheep and goats) whilst MCF affected animals are from the families Bovidae, Cervidae and suidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • By some definitions a reservoir may also be an environment external to an organism, such as a volume of contaminated air or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • In Eastern and Southern Africa MCF is classed as one of the five most important problems affecting pastoralists along with East coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease and anthrax.Hartebeests and topi also may carry the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease exists in Africa and tropical Americas, spread by biting midges or blackflies. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The disease typically occurs at temperatures below 13⁰C, and it can be seen in any area with water temperatures consistently below 15⁰C. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water of a deep reservoir in temperate climates typically stratifies with a large volume of cold, oxygen poor water in the hypolimnion. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Because no commercial treatment or vaccine is available for this disease, livestock management is the only method of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Channel Catfish virus (Ictalurid herpesvirus 1) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae family that causes disease in catfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • These individuals include HIV+ patients, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, transplantation recipients undergoing immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection, patients with severe allergic or autoimmune diseases receiving immunosuppressive therapy, children or adults with congenital immunodeficiencies and more. (vin.com)
  • generate
  • When infected with this disease, the flowers generate pathogenic spores, which can then be transferred to other plants by pollinating insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dams and reservoirs can be used to supply drinking water, generate hydroelectric power, increase the water supply for irrigation, provide recreational opportunities, and flood control. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Her primary research and publications focus on biosocial interactions that cause or contribute to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavobacterium psychrophilum, cause of Bacterial Cold-Water Disease and Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions
  • The importance of the aquatic reservoir depends on the sanitary conditions of the community. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under worse case conditions (such as when the reservoir is full or near full), the stored water is strongly stratified and large volumes of water are being released to the downstream river channel via bottom level outlets, depressed temperatures can be detected 250 - 350 kilometres downstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • How hard pathologists look for the disease and, perhaps, their threshold for making the diagnosis are potentially important factors in determining how many cases of DCIS are diagnosed. (annals.org)
  • Hygiene
  • Normally, people do not need to be advised to part with their pets but rather to take precautions related to ectoparasite control, personal hygiene, feeding, vaccination and disease testing. (vin.com)
  • Mice
  • 1991) Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease after intradermal inoculation of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • BSc in Chemistry (minor in biochemistry) - 1965 MSc in Physiology - 1967 MEd - Education (certified to teach K-12) - 1967 PhD, MIT, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Major in Metabolism, 1979 Thesis: "A diffusion bioassay for the quantitative determination of mutagenicity of chemical carcinogens" (a theoretical study for determining safe threshold concentrations of food additives re: carcinogenesis) Awerbuch-Friedlander is a founding member of the New and Resurgent Disease Working Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • rabies
  • Under the inspired leadership of Dr Downs the laboratory began intensive research programs and made many new discoveries including the isolating of several arthropod-borne disease-causing viruses, and new insights into the epidemiology of key virus diseases including yellow fever, dengue fever, and rabies. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are an indirect result of HIV, as the disease itself does not infect neurons. (health.am)
  • large
  • The disease complex they cause, known as leishmaniosis or leishmaniasis, is endemic in large areas of the tropics, subtropics, and the Mediterranean basin, affecting more than 98 countries. (springer.com)
  • Inves-tigations conducted in conjunction with large reservoir construction projects have yielded the bulk of our knowledge concerning these oc-cupations. (ok.gov)
  • The sewage system of ancient Athens collected the sewage of the city in a large reservoir and then channelled it to the Cephissus river valley for use as fertilizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • July 4, 2013: A 7-year-old boy, Brendon Mackey, was struck in the top of his head and killed while walking with his father shortly before 9 p.m. amid a large crowd prior to the fireworks display over the Swift Creek Reservoir. (wikipedia.org)
  • rash
  • Initial symptoms: Fever Nausea Emesis (vomiting) Severe headache Muscle pain Lack of appetite Parotitis in some cases (somewhat rare) Later signs and symptoms: Maculopapular rash Petechial rash Abdominal pain Joint pain Conjunctivitis Forgetfulness The classic triad of findings for this disease are fever, rash, and history of tick bite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tropical
  • They worked very closely with other scientists in Trinidad, particularly those at the New York Zoological Society's research station headed by Dr William Beebe, the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, the Trinidad and Tobago Health and Agriculture Departments, Arthur M. Greenhall, a world expert on vampire bats, and Dr A. E. Hill, a specialist in Tropical and Internal Diseases, with a particular interest in Dengue fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • As stated by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 35.7 percent of U.S. adults were overweight in 2009-2010 and because 1980 obesity rates have skyrocketed for adults and accounted for kids. (lasercosmetica.com)
  • A study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that 80% of celebratory gunfire-related injuries are to the head, feet, and shoulders. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • Pardis C. Sabeti (Persian: پردیس ثابتی‎) (born December 25, 1975 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian-American computational biologist, medical geneticist and evolutionary geneticist, who developed a bioinformatic statistical method which identifies sections of the genome that have been subject to natural selection and an algorithm which explains the effects of genetics on the evolution of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mosquito
  • It was discovered that a form of the disease "jungle yellow fever" was carried by Red Howler monkeys (Alouatta macconnelli Elliot) who provided a continuous reservoir for the disease and spread by the Haemagogus s. spegazzini mosquito which normally inhabits rainforest regions, both at ground level and in the treetops. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • It is classically an acute condition, appearing in infants, people taking antibiotics or immunosuppressant medications, or immunocompromising diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Center
  • Sabeti is a full professor in the Center for Systems Biology and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University and on the faculty of the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and is an institute member at the Broad Institute and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Washington
  • The 25 acre (100,000 m²) McMillan Reservoir, located between Michigan Avenue, North Capitol Street, and First Street in Northwest Washington, D.C., was designated a DC Historic Landmark in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • You see muscle tissue is your human body's biggest reservoir of bound and monounsaturated fats (it comprises 50-75 percent of proteins in your body), which usually means that muscle protein intake means the same thing as whole body protein intake. (lasercosmetica.com)
  • include
  • Other efforts to control the spread of disease include having a cat to hunt vermin, and storing food in sealed containers. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Example: Amritottara Kashaya, Amritarishta, Guduchi (गुडूची)- It protects and guards body from diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • Between 1981 and 1996, the disease was reported from every state of the United States except for Hawaii, Vermont, Maine, and Alaska. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Common parasitic worm infections, such as ascariasis, in these countries are linked to night soil use in agriculture, because the helminth eggs are in feces and can thus be transmitted from one infected person to another person (fecal-oral transmission of disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Veterinary practitioners are often the first to address questions on possible transfer of disease from pets to owners who are their clients. (vin.com)