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  • multiple sclerosis
  • This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immuneinteractions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. (wingsforlife.com)
  • endemic
  • Affecting over a hundred million individuals worldwide, retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, especially animal models, are essential to furthering our understanding of the etiology, pathology, and progression of these endemic diseases. (springer.com)
  • Our primary objective is to develop methods to rapidly detect and predict the risk of introduction and spread as well as support the risk-based, more cost-effective, prevention, control and eradication of endemic, emerging and re-emerging animal diseases throughout the world. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Biological
  • The zebrafish is a popular animal for research because it is easily manipulated genetically, develops rapidly and is transparent, making the measurement of biological processes easier. (scienceblog.com)
  • One of the uses of this ontology is to integrate data from different biological databases, and other species-specific ontologies such as the Foundational Model of Anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently it has become popular to develop a hypothesis that a certain biological target is disease modifying, and then screen for compounds that modulate the activity of this purified target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotypic screening in animal-based systems utilize model organisms to evaluate the effects of a test agent in fully assembled biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Screening in model organism offers the advantage of interrogating test agents, or alterations in targets of interest, in the context of fully integrated, assembled, biological systems, providing insights that could otherwise not be obtained in cellular systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin and biological role of these toxins is unknown, as there does not appear to be a statistically significant correlation between the concentration of toxic material and the types of herbivory observed in animals consuming the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Using rats and mice genetically modified to carry normal or disease-mutant versions of human SOD1, a team of researchers led by Timothy M. Miller, M.D., Ph.D., Washington University, St. Louis, MO, discovered that newer versions of the drug may be more effective at treating ALS than the earlier one that had been tested in a phase 1 clinical trial. (eurekalert.org)
  • For instance, injections of the newer versions were more efficient at reducing normal, human SOD1 mRNA levels in rats and mice and they helped rats, genetically modified to carry a disease-causing mutation in SOD1, live much longer than previous versions of the drug. (eurekalert.org)
  • Injections of the new drugs also delayed the age at which mice carrying a disease-mutant SOD1 gene had trouble balancing on a rotating rod and appeared to prevent muscle weakness and loss of connections between nerves and muscles, suggesting it could treat the muscle activation problems caused by ALS. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of number and variety of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rodents are commonly used in animal testing, particularly mice and rats, but also guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • While mice, rats and other rodents are by far the most widely used animals in biomedical research, recent studies have highlighted their limitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding experiments on mice in particular, some researchers have complained that "years and billions of dollars have been wasted following false leads" as a result of a preoccupation with the use of these animals in studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many laboratory animals, including mice and rats, are chronically stressed which can also negatively affect research outcomes and the ability to accurately extrapolate findings to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: from animal disease models to human trials. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). (wingsforlife.com)
  • The researchers are already studying CLR01 in a mouse model of Parkinson's and say they hope this will lead to human clinical trials. (scienceblog.com)
  • Not only does a rodent's small brain often preclude the use of advanced neuroimaging techniques, it is also not clear how intracerebral application of trophic factors, transplant therapies, and gene therapies in small animals might translate to the much larger human brain. (medindia.net)
  • Importantly, the brains of large animals can be studied using sensitive measures that should be highly translatable to the human condition, including MRI and PET imaging, EEG, and electrophysiology, as well as behavioral tests looking at motor and cognitive function," says Professor Jenny Morton, PhD, of the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge. (medindia.net)
  • Animal models are used by scientists to replicate human diseases in another living animal, allowing them to study the biology of the disease and test potential treatments. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • This was shown in human Muse cells infused into animal models with fulminant hepatitis, partial hepatectomy, muscle degeneration, skin injury, stroke and spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although kindling is a widely used model, its applicability to human epilepsy is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in both human epilepsy and in some animal models, evidence suggests that a process like that found in kindling does occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further research by Goddard on the characteristics of the kindling phenomenon led to his conclusion that kindling can be used to model human epileptogenesis, learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The publication of these results opened a completely new niche for epilepsy research and has stimulated a significant amount of studies on the subject of kindling and its relevance to human epilepsy Kindling (sedative-hypnotic withdrawal) Epileptogenesis Racine Stages (a method by which seizure severity is quantified in animal models of epilepsy) Bertram E (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • The directive stresses the use of the 3R principle (replacement, refinement, reduction) and animal welfare when conducting animal testing on non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have argued that cellular based systems are unable to adequately model human disease processes that involve many different cell types across many different organ systems and that this type of complexity can only be emulated in model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are widely considered to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their genes with humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syrian hamsters are used to model the human medical conditions including various cancers, metabolic diseases, non-cancer respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and general health concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • An article in The Scientist notes, "The difficulties associated with using animal models for human disease result from the metabolic, anatomic, and cellular differences between humans and other creatures, but the problems go even deeper than that" including issues with the design and execution of the tests themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • Altogen Labs maintains a GLP-compliant laboratory performing preclinical research and biotechnology studies, pharmacology and toxicology assays, and in vivo experiments including: cancer xenograft models, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Strategies directed against the huntingtin gene in the brain are an important part of CHDI's therapeutic portfolio", says David Howland, PhD, Director of Model Systems at CHDI. (medindia.net)
  • In 1991, it was recognized that the AR gene is involved in the disease process. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The results, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation , suggest the newer version of the drug may be effective at treating an inherited form of the disease caused by mutations in SOD1. (eurekalert.org)
  • treatments
  • NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Further understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive CD4 + T cells may lead to disease-specific treatments. (wiley.com)
  • stroke
  • This paper critically integrates the neurovascular and pathophysiological features gleaned from posterior circulation stroke animal models into clinical correlations. (hindawi.com)
  • commonly
  • The researchers next tried their tweezers in a living animal, the zebrafish, a tropical freshwater fish commonly found in aquariums. (scienceblog.com)
  • Kindling is a commonly used model for the development of seizures and epilepsy in which the duration and behavioral involvement of induced seizures increases after seizures are induced repeatedly. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the most commonly used mammalian research model and are used for research in genetics, psychology, medicine and other scientific disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • appropriate
  • Center team members will support risk assessment research and training activities and provide advice on appropriate disease surveillance methods as well as contribute to capacity building programs in FAO member developing countries. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Appropriate animal models are necessary to achieve this understanding. (hindawi.com)
  • researchers
  • The Boyd Group, a British group comprising animal researchers, philosophers, primatologists, and animal advocates, has recommended a global prohibition on the use of great apes. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • Significant advances have been made in the creation and characterization of HD models in nonhuman primates (NHP). (medindia.net)
  • Surveillance
  • The Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS) led by Dr. Beatriz Martínez López was formally recognized by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as an FAO Reference Center for Veterinary Epidemiology in May 2018. (ucdavis.edu)
  • progression
  • They found that, just as in cell cultures, CLR01 prevented α-synuclein aggregation and neuronal death, thus stopping the progression of the disorder in the living animal model. (scienceblog.com)
  • research
  • Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular investigators, ophthalmologists, and neuroscientists currently delving into this fascinating field of study. (springer.com)
  • CAMARADES is currently leading the way in advancing education about systematic reviews in animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof. Macleod is on the Methodology Advisory Board of the charity SABRE Research UK which raises awareness of the need for systematic reviews of existing animal studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the most publicized attacks on animal research facilities by animal rights groups have occurred because of primate research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006-07, Syrian hamsters accounted for 19% of the total animal research participants in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Metabolic products of lipid peroxides have been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (go.jp)
  • Brain
  • UCLA professor of neurology Jeff Bronstein and UCLA associate professor of neurology Gal Bitan, along with their colleagues, report the development of a novel compound known as a "molecular tweezer," which in a living animal model blocked α-synuclein aggregates from forming, stopped the aggregates' toxicity and, further, reversed aggregates in the brain that had already formed. (scienceblog.com)
  • The mission of NINDS is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • mouse
  • This Viewpoint Essay discusses the contribution by autoreactive T cells to the pathogenesis of bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, with an emphasis on studies using active animal mouse models for these diseases. (wiley.com)
  • vivo
  • The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. (wingsforlife.com)
  • In drug discovery, Altogen Labs offers include the following in vivo efficacy tests: teratoma formation and analysis, cancer disease animal models, and animal xenograft models. (wikipedia.org)
  • approaches
  • In whole animal-based approaches, phenotypic screening is best exemplified where a substance is evaluated for potential therapeutic benefit across many different types of animal models representing different disease states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal based approaches to phenotypic screening are not as amenable to screening libraries containing thousands of small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • It induces hepatotoxicity and Zamia staggers, a fatal nervous disease affecting cattle resulting from browsing on the leaves or fruit of cycads. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Uberon is a comparative anatomy ontology representing a variety of structures found in animals, such as lungs, muscles, bones, feathers and fins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments
  • In December 2005, Austria outlawed experiments on any apes, unless it is conducted in the interests of the individual animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • While it's not known what exactly causes the disease, evidence points to one particular culprit: a protein called α-synuclein. (scienceblog.com)
  • various
  • Metabolic products of lipid peroxides have been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (go.jp)