• To establish an experimental system to directly observe molecular evolution, a DNA fragment that confers ampicillin resistance on Escherichia coli was cloned from an archaeal genomic DNA. (pnas.org)
  • In 2015, the team led by Ned Budisa reported the successful completion of a long-term evolution experiment that resulted in full, proteome-wide substitution of all 20,899 tryptophan residues with thienopyrrole-alanine in the genetic code of the bacterium Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative biochemistry demonstrates that the metabolites, complex biochemical networks, enzymes and regulatory mechanisms essential to all living cells are conserved in amazing detail throughout evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Enzymes participating in different metabolic pathways often have similar catalytic mechanisms and structures, suggesting their evolution from a common ancestral precursor enzyme. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • His interests in the origins of life led him to explore in detail a diverse array of prebiotic reaction mechanisms, and to make the discovery of clay-directed RNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another series of publications on chemical evolution, Ferris further expanded the understanding of these and other reactions, demonstrating, for example, mechanisms of hydrogen cyanide polymerization under a variety of conditions leading to purines, pyrimidines, amino acids, and a host of organic precursor molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeal cell wall is chemically different from the bacterial peptidoglycan, and therefore archaea are not susceptible to common antibiotics directed against cell-wall synthesis, including β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirteen years of his group's malaria research on antigenic variation in malaria culminated in the first molecular cloning of the malarial antigen PfEMP1, a parasite protein that this human malaria parasite expresses on the surface of malaria-infected red cells This antigen represents critical biological functions for the parasite including immune evasion and adherence to microvascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA library technology is a mainstay of current molecular biology, and the applications of these libraries depends on the source of the original DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monobodies are generated from combinatorial libraries in which portions of the FN3 scaffold are diversified using molecular display and directed evolution technologies such as phage display, mRNA display and yeast surface display. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting mutants provide appropriate variants for selection by the stress involved, thus accelerating evolution with minimal random damage to the genome. (wiley.com)
  • Even if an organism is used to express the gene of interest, by mutagenising only that gene, the rest of the organism's genome remains the same and can be ignored for the evolution experiment (to the extent of providing a constant genetic environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • Wang M, Yafremava LS, Caetano-Anollés D, Mittenthal JS, Caetano-Anollés G (2007) Reductive evolution of architectural repertoires in proteomes and the birth of the tripartite world" Genome Research 17(11) 1572-1585. (wikipedia.org)
  • A doctorate or its equivalent is generally required to direct independent research, and involves a specialization in a specific area of biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Sergio Riva is the Director of the Institute of the Chemistry of Molecular Recognition (ICRM) of the Italian National Council of Research (C.N.R.), where he has been working since 1984, and "Professore a Contratto"at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia since 2000. (wiley.com)
  • K. Christopher "Chris" Garcia, Ph.D., is an American scientist renowned for his research on the molecular biology of cell surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alfred Sturtevant predicted the existence of chromosomal inversions in 1921 and with Dobzhansky constructed one of the first molecular phylogenies on 17 Drosophila Pseudo-obscura strains from the accumulation of chromosomal inversions observed from the hybridization of polyten chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, detailed genetic analyses of viral functions and evolution have identified key viral determinants for the successful completion of each stage in the replication cycle. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Our objective here is to characterize the viral evolution and viral factors determining HIV virulence, the evolution of the HIV reservoir in PBMC and the co-evolution of anti-HIV CD8 T cel. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nasir A, Kim KM, Caetano-Anollés G (2012) Viral evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tool use is considered to be the hallmark of complex cognitive adaptations that humans have achieved trough evolution, that provides an adaptive advantage to the human species. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Caetano-Anollés G, Wang M, Mittenthal JE (2009) The origin, evolution and structure of the protein world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sun FJ, Caetano-Anollés G (2008) The origin and evolution of tRNA inferred from phylogenetic analysis of structure" Journal of Molecular Evolution 66(1) 21-35. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the editor of Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres (OLEB), an academic journal sponsored by The International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (ISSOL), from 1982 to 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenomic analysis of RNA and protein molecules that make up the massive ribosomal ensemble shows that the most ancient ribosomal RNA structure interacted with the most ancient ribosomal protein and that this triggered a coordinated accretion process that ultimately resulted in a functional ribosomal core, half-way in evolution of life and prior to cellular diversification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Garcia's group has also authored several landmark articles exploring various aspects of TCR-pMHC interactions, including the first structure of a γδ TCR-pMHC complex, the molecular basis for dual recognition of "self" and "foreign" MHCs by TCRs, the role of docking geometry in TCR signaling and the extent of cross-reactivity in the TCR repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • The likelihood of success in a directed evolution experiment is directly related to the total library size, as evaluating more mutants increases the chances of finding one with the desired properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poaceae (grasses) is an agriculturally important and widely distributed family of plants with extraordinary phenotypic diversity, much of which was generated under recent lineage-specific evolution. (bioportfolio.com)
  • If evolution possessed an active trend toward complexity (orthogenesis), as was widely believed in the 19th century, then we would expect to see an increase over time in the most common value (the mode) of complexity among organisms, as shown to the left. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple cycles of creating gene variants and screening the expression products are typically involved in directed evolution experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to molecular studies of cytokines, Garcia's group has also used directed evolution to engineer high affinity cytokine variants (IL-2, IFN-λ) with improved therapeutic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of crop evolution has focused primarily on the process of initial domestication. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to utilize Trinity Evolution as a graft source in tibiotalar arthrodesis and to follow the subjects to measure the clinical outcomes and fusion rate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to utilize Trinity Evolution in conjunction with an interbody spacer and supplemental anterior fixation of the surgeon's choice and to follow the patients to m. (bioportfolio.com)