###### tensor

- To identify abnormal white matter projections in patients with nmTBI with cognitive impairments using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). (bmj.com)
- In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. (rice.edu)
- Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. (rice.edu)
- The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. (rice.edu)
- Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. (rice.edu)
- The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. (rice.edu)
- We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain. (rice.edu)

###### coefficient

- Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. (rice.edu)
- 2009). In this matter, we followed the suggestion of Hukka (1999), who simulated moisture transport in the transversal plane of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) based on the concept of an effective diffusion coefficient and proposed extending this simulation to moisture contents above the FSP. (scielo.org.ar)
- The parameters that ultimately determined the relationship between moisture content and moisture flow were calculated by solving the following inverse problem: Given a known drying curve and known moisture distributions in certain sections, we determined the effective diffusion coefficient in order to simulate the drying process using a diffusive transport equation. (scielo.org.ar)

###### Water

- In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. (rice.edu)

###### effective

- Abstract - We modeled conventional one-dimensional drying of radiata pine ( Pinus radiata ) wood using the concept of effective diffusion. (scielo.org.ar)
- The experimentally determined effective diffusion coefficients for the radial and tangential directions were related exponentially to the moisture content. (scielo.org.ar)

###### review

- A review of technology diffusion approaches in selected OECD countries is then presented, again with an emphasis on measures for small and mid-sized firms. (gatech.edu)
- We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal-Tanner diffusion equation. (rice.edu)

###### sections

- In following sections, the paper considers the meaning of technology diffusion and how technology diffusion measures can be classified. (gatech.edu)

###### terms

- This study focuses on diffusion models, which are advantageous given their simplicity in terms of the number of physical parameters required and numerical calculations. (scielo.org.ar)

###### process

- Although classic models of technological development suggest a straightforward linear path from basic research and development to technology commercialization and adoption, in practice technology diffusion is more often a complex and iterative process. (gatech.edu)
- However, it is increasingly recognized that market failures and strategic interests also exist in the process of technology diffusion. (gatech.edu)
- Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. (rice.edu)

###### stochastic

- Itō diffusion , mathematisation of Brownian motion, continuous stochastic process. (princeton.edu)
- In mathematics, a reversible diffusion is a specific example of a reversible stochastic process. (wikipedia.org)
- Let X : [0, +∞) × Ω → Rd be an Itō diffusion defined on a probability space (Ω, Σ, P) and solving the Itō stochastic differential equation d X t = b ( X t ) d t + d B t {\displaystyle \mathrm {d} X_{t}=b(X_{t})\,\mathrm {d} t+\mathrm {d} B_{t}} with square-integrable initial condition, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics - specifically, in stochastic analysis - an Itô diffusion is a solution to a specific type of stochastic differential equation. (wikipedia.org)

###### described by the diffusion equation

- This is the process described by the diffusion equation. (wikipedia.org)
- These subjects described by the diffusion equation are generally called Brown problems. (wikipedia.org)

###### particles

- Diffusion describes the spread of particles through random motion from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. (princeton.edu)
- There are two ways to introduce the notion of diffusion: either a phenomenological approach starting with Fick's laws of diffusion and their mathematical consequences, or a physical and atomistic one, by considering the random walk of the diffusing particles. (wikipedia.org)
- From the atomistic point of view, diffusion is considered as a result of the random walk of the diffusing particles. (wikipedia.org)
- In astrophysics, "ambipolar diffusion" refers specifically to the decoupling of neutral particles from plasma, for example in the initial stage of star formation. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero. (wikipedia.org)
- In a phase with uniform temperature, absent external net forces acting on the particles, the diffusion process will eventually result in complete mixing. (wikipedia.org)
- In physics, the motion of diffusion particles corresponds to the well-known Brownian motion satisfying the parabolic law. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1827, so-called Brownian motion was found, where the self-diffusion of water is visualized by the motion of pollen micro particles. (wikipedia.org)
- In relation to the migration of their particles, the diffusion problems of various solid materials have been widely investigated, although the diffusion equation was mainly applied to problems of liquid material in an early stage after Fick's proposition. (wikipedia.org)
- We found that the diffusivity of diffusion equation depends generally on the concentration of diffusion particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Momentum diffusion most commonly refers to the diffusion, or spread of momentum between particles (atoms or molecules) of matter, often in the fluid state. (wikipedia.org)
- The phrase "momentum diffusion" can also refer to the diffusion of the probability for a single particles to have a particular momentum. (wikipedia.org)

###### diffusivity

- Traditionally, in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), three gradient-directions are applied, sufficient to estimate the trace of the diffusion tensor or 'average diffusivity', a putative measure of edema . (wikipedia.org)
- Brian and Sune's group had previously described a fast protocol, referred to as the 1-3-9 scheme, that includes three diffusion directions at a low b-value to determine the mean diffusivity and 9 specific diffusion directions at a higher b-value to calculate mean kurtosis [Hansen et al. (ismrm.org)

###### molecular diffusion

- The paradigmatic examples were heat diffusion , molecular diffusion and Brownian motion . (princeton.edu)
- In molecular diffusion , the moving entities are small molecules which are self propelled by thermal energy and do not require a concentration gradient to spread out through random motion. (princeton.edu)
- Under normal conditions, molecular diffusion is relevant only on length scales between nanometer and millimeter. (princeton.edu)
- For the diffusion of molecules down a concentration gradient, see molecular diffusion . (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular diffusion in tissues is not free, but reflects interactions with many obstacles, such as macromolecules , fibers, and membranes . (wikipedia.org)
- Diffusion imaging is an MRI method that produces in vivo magnetic resonance images of biological tissues sensitized with the local characteristics of molecular diffusion, generally water (but other moieties can also be investigated using MR spectroscopic approaches). (wikipedia.org)
- In molecular diffusion, the moving molecules are self-propelled by thermal energy. (wikipedia.org)
- Once the concentrations are equal the molecules continue to move, but since there is no concentration gradient the process of molecular diffusion has ceased and is instead governed by the process of self-diffusion, originating from the random motion of the molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular diffusion is typically described mathematically using Fick's laws of diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
- Of mass transport mechanisms, molecular diffusion is known as a slower one. (wikipedia.org)

###### equations

- This book presents a self-contained exposition of the theory of initial-boundary value problems for diffusion equations. (waterstones.com)
- It treats diffusion equations with variable coefficients associated with boundary conditions and the corresponding elliptic differential equations. (waterstones.com)
- This book is an introduction to the multidisciplinary field of anomalous diffusion in complex systems, with emphasis on the scaling approach as opposed to techniques based on the quantitative analysis of underlying transport equations. (springer.com)
- The extended diffusion equations are used for various sciences fields. (wikipedia.org)
- We must then solve a system of diffusion equations. (wikipedia.org)

###### fluid

- Eddy diffusion , eddy dispersion , multipath , or turbulent diffusion is any diffusion process by which substances are mixed in the atmosphere or in any fluid system due to eddy motion . (wikipedia.org)
- This is because applying pressure on the fluid has caused momentum diffusion in that direction. (wikipedia.org)

###### molecules

- Diffusion is this thermal motion of all (liquid and gas) molecules at temperatures above absolute zero . (princeton.edu)
- While Brownian motion of large molecules is observable under a microscope, small-molecule diffusion can only be probed in carefully controlled experimental conditions. (princeton.edu)
- Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging ( DWI or DW-MRI ) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images. (wikipedia.org)
- Play media Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration with high chemical potential to a region of low concentration with low chemical potential. (wikipedia.org)
- Biologists often use the terms "net movement" or "net diffusion" to describe the movement of ions or molecules by diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
- Spin diffusion has been used to study many structural problems in the past, ranging from domain sizes in polymers and disorder in glassy materials to high-resolution crystal structure determination of small molecules and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Diffusion explains the net flux of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. (wikipedia.org)
- The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material such that the distribution of molecules is uniform. (wikipedia.org)
- Fundamentally, two types of diffusion are distinguished: Tracer diffusion and Self-diffusion, which is a spontaneous mixing of molecules taking place in the absence of concentration (or chemical potential) gradient. (wikipedia.org)

###### Euclidean

- The Euclidean distance between points in the embedded space is equal to the "diffusion distance" between probability distributions centered at those points. (wikipedia.org)
- Diffusion wavelets are a fast multiscale framework for the analysis of functions on discrete (or discretized continuous) structures like graphs, manifolds, and point clouds in Euclidean space. (wikipedia.org)

###### physics

- In plasma physics, ambipolar diffusion is closely related to the concept of quasineutrality. (wikipedia.org)
- Diffusion is of fundamental importance in many disciplines of physics, chemistry, and biology. (wikipedia.org)

###### Fick's

- According to Fick's laws, the diffusion flux is proportional to the negative gradient of concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
- In the following, however, we discuss the fundamental diffusion equation of the so-called Fick's diffusion equation in relation to material science. (wikipedia.org)
- It also shows that the corresponding Fick's first law to the Fick's second law is mathematically incomplete without a constant diffusion flux relevant to the Brownian motion in the localized space. (wikipedia.org)

###### mathematically

- This explains why the diffusion of heat was explained mathematically before the diffusion of mass. (princeton.edu)
- The diffusion equation is one of them, and mathematically corresponds to the Markov process in relation to the normal distribution rule. (wikipedia.org)

###### concept of diffusion

- The concept of diffusion is tied to that of mass transfer driven by a concentration gradient, but diffusion can still occur when there is no concentration gradient (but there will be no net flux ). (princeton.edu)
- The concept of diffusion emerged from physical sciences. (princeton.edu)
- In a less quantitative way, the concept of diffusion is invoked in the social sciences to describe the spread of ideas ( Diffusion of innovations , Lexical diffusion , Trans-cultural diffusion ). (princeton.edu)
- Original PhD thesis introducing concept of Diffusion curves. (wikipedia.org)
- The concept of diffusion is typically applied to any subject matter involving random walks in ensembles of individuals. (wikipedia.org)

###### dimensionality reduction

- Different from linear dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), diffusion maps is part of the family of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods which focus on discovering the underlying manifold that the data has been sampled from. (wikipedia.org)
- Multiscale Dimensionality Reduction with Diffusion Wavelets" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)

###### planning process

- This can be accomplished by applying diffusion of information and influence theory to the predeployment planning process. (ou.edu)

###### Brownian

- The theory of the Brownian motion and the atomistic backgrounds of diffusion were developed by Albert Einstein. (wikipedia.org)
- Nevertheless, Brownian motion had not been recognized as a diffusion problem until the Einstein theory of Brownian motion in 1905. (wikipedia.org)

###### flux

- The constant diffusion flux is indispensable for understanding the self-diffusion mechanism. (wikipedia.org)

###### concentration

- Diffusion rate is a function of only temperature, and is not affected by concentration. (princeton.edu)
- of thermal diffusion, called the diffusion thermoeffect, in which an imposed concentration difference causes a temperature difference to develop. (britannica.com)
- Oxygen then moves by diffusion, down the concentration gradient, into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- However, in each case, the object (e.g., atom, idea, etc.) that is undergoing diffusion is "spreading out" from a point or location at which there is a higher concentration of that object. (wikipedia.org)
- In the phenomenological approach, diffusion is the movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration without bulk motion. (wikipedia.org)

###### mathematical

- The strength of diffusion damping is calculated by a mathematical expression for the damping factor, which figures into the Boltzmann equation, an equation which describes the amplitude of perturbations in the CMB. (wikipedia.org)

###### equation

- The time dependence of the statistical distribution in space is given by the diffusion equation . (princeton.edu)
- The diffusion equation is a partial differential equation. (wikipedia.org)
- Although it was a typical diffusion problem, Fick applied the heat equation to the diffusion phenomena in 1855. (wikipedia.org)
- Gauss's divergence theorem shows that the diffusion equation is valid in the solid, liquid, and gas states in every material as a material conservation law, if there are no sinks or sources in the system. (wikipedia.org)
- The self-diffusion mechanism itself was not directly investigated, although it had been indirectly investigated by behavior of impurity diffusion in a pure material as shown in the Einstein's Brown theory and the Langevin equation. (wikipedia.org)
- In accordance with the parabolic law, Boltzmann transformed the diffusion equation of, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation, into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of in 1894. (wikipedia.org)
- The magnitude of diffusion damping is calculated as a damping factor or suppression factor, represented by the symbol D {\displaystyle {\mathcal {D}}} , which figures into the Boltzmann equation, an equation which describes the amplitude of perturbations in the CMB. (wikipedia.org)

###### 1992

- Heumann Th, Mehrer H (Mitarb) (1992) Diffusion in Metallen. (springer.com)

###### Lexical

- In historical linguistics, lexical diffusion is both a phenomenon and a theory. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory of lexical diffusion stands in contrast to the Neogrammarian hypothesis that a given sound change applies simultaneously to all words in which its context is found. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, Pulleyblank regards the theoretical formulation of lexical diffusion as presented by Hsieh in Wang 1977 as "so manifestly at odds with any realistic picture of how dialects are inter-related and how innovations spread spatially through a language as to make them totally untenable" (1982: 408). (wikipedia.org)
- Referring to one of Wang's touchstones of lexical diffusion, Egerod dismisses his theory as a sleight of hand: there is no "massive split" involved, but an error of methodology in accounting for tones. (wikipedia.org)
- Mazaudon & Lowe conclude a robust critique of lexical diffusion in a similar vein, remarking that "a detailed study of the history of the language can disentangle the reflexes from different sources, and it is not necessary to renounce the principle of regular change for the sake of such cases" (1994: 11). (wikipedia.org)
- William Labov, in Principles of Linguistic Change, takes the position that there are two types of sound changes: regular sound change (respecting the Neogrammarian hypothesis) and lexical diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
- Labov lists a typology, according to which certain phenomena are typically or exclusively regular (example, vowel quality changes), while others (example, metathesis, or vowel shortening) tend to follow a lexical diffusion pattern. (wikipedia.org)
- Paul Kiparsky, in the Handbook of Phonology (Goldsmith editor), argues that under a proper definition of analogy as optimization, lexical diffusion is not a type of sound change. (wikipedia.org)
- Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion. (wikipedia.org)

###### Osmosis

- Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a cell membrane. (princeton.edu)
- Demo and lab activities to help students experience diffusion and osmosis first-hand. (bu.edu)
- Diffusion of solvents, such as water, through a semipermeable membrane is classified as osmosis. (wikipedia.org)

###### mathematician

- Reversible diffusions have an elegant characterization due to the Russian mathematician Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov. (wikipedia.org)
- Itô diffusions are named after the Japanese mathematician Kiyosi Itô. (wikipedia.org)

###### displaystyle

- Unlike classical wavelets whose basis functions are predetermined, diffusion wavelets are adapted to the geometry of a given diffusion operator T {\displaystyle T} (e.g., a heat kernel or a random walk). (wikipedia.org)
- Moreover, the diffusion wavelet basis functions are constructed by dilation using the dyadic powers (powers of two) of T {\displaystyle T} . These dyadic powers of T {\displaystyle T} diffusion over the space and propagate local relationships in the function throughout the space until they become global. (wikipedia.org)
- This algorithm constructs the scaling basis functions and the wavelet basis functions along with the representations of the diffusion operator T {\displaystyle T} at these scales. (wikipedia.org)
- Input: // T {\displaystyle T} is the matrix representation of the diffusion operator. (wikipedia.org)
- Floyd and Steinberg described a system for performing error diffusion on digital images based on a simple kernel: 1 16 [ − # 7 3 5 1 ] {\displaystyle {\frac {1}{16}}\left[{\begin{array}{ccccc}-&\#&7\\3&5&1\end{array}}\right]} where " − {\displaystyle -} " denotes a pixel in the current row which has already been processed (hence diffusing error to it would be pointless), and "#" denotes the pixel currently being processed. (wikipedia.org)
- x_{i})=M_{i,j}^{t}\,} One of the main ideas of diffusion framework is that running the chain forward in time (taking larger and larger powers of M {\displaystyle M} ) reveals the geometric structure of X {\displaystyle X} at larger and larger scales (the diffusion process). (wikipedia.org)
- The reason to introduce the normalization step involving α {\displaystyle \alpha } is to tune the influence of the data point density on the infinitesimal transition of the diffusion. (wikipedia.org)

###### Eddy

- Because the microscopic processes responsible for atmospheric mixing are too complex to model in detail, atmospheric modelers generally treat atmospheric mixing as a macroscopic "eddy" diffusion process. (wikipedia.org)

###### Photon

- In modern cosmological theory, diffusion damping, also called photon diffusion damping, is a physical process which reduced density inequalities (anisotropies) in the early universe, making the universe itself and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) more uniform. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus all damping by electron diffusion is negligible when compared to photon diffusion damping. (wikipedia.org)
- Photon diffusion was first described in Joseph Silk's 1968 paper entitled "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and Galaxy Formation", which was published in The Astrophysical Journal. (wikipedia.org)

###### mechanisms

- The ADC concept was introduced to take into account the fact that the diffusion process is complex in biological tissues and reflects several different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)

###### convection

- In most plasmas, the forces acting on the ions are different from those acting on the electrons, so naively one would expect one species to be transported faster than the other, whether by diffusion or convection or some other process. (wikipedia.org)

###### Approximation

- Value Function Approximation using Diffusion Wavelets and Laplacian Eigenfunctions" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)

###### processes

- The rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction is limited by diffusion and so the enzyme 'processes' the substrate well before it encounters another molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- Some large deviation results for diffusion processes. (wikipedia.org)
- Metabolism and respiration rely in part upon diffusion in addition to bulk or active processes. (wikipedia.org)
- The diffusion process was developed later than the alloy junction and grown junction processes for making BJTs. (wikipedia.org)

###### innovations

- It is distinct from the diffusion of innovations within a specific culture. (wikipedia.org)
- Also of interest is the work of American historian and critic Daniel J. Boorstin in his book The Discoverers , in which he provides an historical perspective on the role of explorers in the diffusion of innovations between civilizations . (wikipedia.org)

###### solids

- Atomic diffusion , in solids. (princeton.edu)
- Shewmon P (1989) Diffusion in Solids. (springer.com)

###### anisotropy

- Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is important when a tissue-such as the neural axons of white matter in the brain or muscle fibers in the heart-has an internal fibrous structure analogous to the anisotropy of some crystals. (wikipedia.org)
- From the diffusion tensor, diffusion anisotropy measures such as the fractional anisotropy (FA), can be computed. (wikipedia.org)
- This reduction in anisotropy is the damping of diffusion damping. (wikipedia.org)

###### process of diffusion

- This demo is repeated in cold water and hot water to study the effect of temperature on the process of diffusion. (bu.edu)
- TSC acts to increase the rate at which oxygen moves through blood plasma by the process of diffusion, a phenomenon that forms the basis for the company's name. (wikipedia.org)

###### coefficients

- An excellent method for the measurement of self-diffusion coefficients is pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR, where no isotopic tracers are needed. (wikipedia.org)

###### Mechanism

- Kulturkugel " (a German compound meaning "culture bullet", coined by J. P. Mallory ), a mechanism suggested by Mallory to model the scale of invasion vs. gradual migration vs. diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
- An example of a situation in which bulk motion and diffusion can be differentiated is the mechanism by which oxygen enters the body during external respiration known as breathing. (wikipedia.org)

###### describes

- Spin diffusion describes a situation wherein the individual nuclear spins undergo continuous exchange of energy. (wikipedia.org)

###### occur

- However, there sometimes occur so-called quasi-steady states, where the diffusion process does not change in time, where classical results may locally apply. (wikipedia.org)

###### typically

- Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) increases sensitivity to microstructural changes by extending the diffusion signal expression to account for non-Gaussian effects, but it typically requires time-consuming acquisitions with high diffusion weighting. (ismrm.org)

###### Momentum

- Momentum diffusion , ex. (princeton.edu)
- Momentum diffusion can be attributed to either external pressure or shear stress or both. (wikipedia.org)
- Understanding the exact nature of diffusion is a key aspect towards understanding momentum diffusion due to pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- The diffusion of momentum is in the direction of decreasing velocity. (wikipedia.org)

###### self-diffusion

- The tracer diffusion is usually assumed to be identical to self-diffusion (assuming no significant isotopic effect). (wikipedia.org)

###### algorithm

- Unlike many other halftoning methods, error diffusion is classified as an area operation, because what the algorithm does at one location influences what happens at other locations. (wikipedia.org)
- The simplest algorithm is exactly like one dimensional error diffusion, except half the error is added to the next pixel, and half of the error is added to the pixel on the next line below. (wikipedia.org)
- Compared with other methods, the diffusion maps algorithm is robust to noise perturbation and is computationally inexpensive. (wikipedia.org)

###### temperature

- Diffusion damping thus damps temperature and density anisotropies in the early universe. (wikipedia.org)

###### transport phenomena

- Diffusion is part of the transport phenomena. (wikipedia.org)

###### substrate

- A Diffusion limited enzyme is an enzyme which catalyses a reaction so efficiently that the rate limiting step is that of substrate diffusion into the active site , or product diffusion out. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory of diffusion-controlled reaction was originally utilized by R.A. Alberty, Gordon Hammes , and Manfred Eigen to estimate the upper limit of enzyme-substrate reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- A detailed comparison between the simplified Alberty-Hammes-Eigen's model ( a ) and the Chou's model ( b ) in calculating the diffusion-controlled reaction rate of enzyme with its substrate, or the upper limit of enzyme-substrate reaction, was elaborated in the paper. (wikipedia.org)
- A diffusion transistor is a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) formed by diffusing dopants into a semiconductor substrate. (wikipedia.org)

###### theoretical

- In this theoretical framework, diffusion is due to fluctuations whose dimensions range from the molecular scale to the macroscopic scale. (wikipedia.org)

###### Plasma

- The plasma diffusion across the magnetic field is an important topic in magnetic confinement of fusion plasma. (wikipedia.org)
- The Hsu diffusion predicts the 1/B3/2 scaling, that is presumably the best confinement scenario in magnetized plasma. (wikipedia.org)
- The primary effects on the diffusion length are from the properties of the plasma in question: different sorts of plasma may experience different sorts of diffusion damping. (wikipedia.org)

###### scales

- By integrating local similarities at different scales, diffusion maps gives a global description of the data-set. (wikipedia.org)

###### traits

- Indirect diffusion happens when traits are passed from one culture through a middleman to another culture, without the first and final cultures being in direct contact. (wikipedia.org)

###### occurs

- Direct diffusion occurs when two cultures are very close to each other, resulting in intermarriage, trade, and even warfare. (wikipedia.org)
- Forced diffusion occurs when one culture subjugates (conquers or enslaves) another culture and forces its own customs on the conquered people. (wikipedia.org)

###### Oxygen

- Gainer is the inventor of the company's platform technology of oxygen diffusion-enhancing compounds and its lead drug, trans sodium crocetinate (TSC). (wikipedia.org)
- TSC and other oxygen diffusion-enhancing compounds, including bipolar trans carotenoid salts (the subclass to which TSC belongs), have been investigated by Diffusion Pharmaceuticals for treatment of conditions associated with reduced oxygen availability in tissues (hypoxia). (wikipedia.org)
- Gainer invented the concept of oxygen diffusion-enhancing compounds and its specific embodiment, TSC, while a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Virginia. (wikipedia.org)
- Before TSC's invention, he and colleagues conducted research on the effects of oxygen diffusion-enhancing compounds in various animal disease models, including atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- With the invention of TSC, their research turned to the potential use of this synthetic oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound for the improved treatment of hemorrhagic shock (shock caused by the loss of a large volume of blood) on the battlefield. (wikipedia.org)

###### bipolar

- Between 2008 and 2017, Diffusion Pharmaceuticals expanded its intellectual property portfolio, having been awarded new patents (in the United States and internationally) that covered the synthesis and uses of bipolar trans carotenoid salts and related compounds in peripheral artery disease, cancer and other indications. (wikipedia.org)

###### geometry

- The Diffusion Map unravels the toroidal helix recovering the underlying intrinsic circular geometry of the data. (wikipedia.org)

###### theories

- Rogers (1962) states that the purpose of diffusion theories is to accelerate the process associated with the acceptance of new ideas. (ou.edu)

###### corresponds

- The scale on which diffusion damping works is called the Silk scale and its value corresponds to the size of galaxies of the present day. (wikipedia.org)

###### Heat

- Diffusion maps exploit the relationship between heat diffusion and random walk Markov chain . (wikipedia.org)

###### theory

- Rogers (1962) diffusion of innovation theory provides insight on how to communicate with large groups of people through interpersonal communication. (ou.edu)
- Understanding the adoption lifecycle of innovation can be characterised using Everett Rogers' Diffusions of Innovation theory. (youtube.com)
- Diffusion wavelets are an extension of classical wavelet theory from harmonic analysis. (wikipedia.org)

###### examples

- Examples of diffusion include the spread of the war chariot and iron smelting in ancient times, and the use of automobiles and Western business suits in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
- Students are asked to write down and share other examples of diffusion experienced in everyday life. (bu.edu)

###### generates

- When used in front of the camera lens, a diffusion filter softens subjects and generates a dreamy haze. (wikipedia.org)

###### artifacts

- One dimensional error diffusion tends to have severe image artifacts that show up as distinct vertical lines. (wikipedia.org)
- Two dimensional error diffusion reduces the visual artifacts. (wikipedia.org)
- Recently, we talked with Drs. Jelle Veraart, Els Fieremans, and Dmitry Novikov to learn more about how they use regularization functions to mitigate artifacts induced by Gibbs ringing in diffusion MRI. (ismrm.org)

###### extensively

- A special kind of DWI, diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI ), has been used extensively to map white matter tractography in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- Diffusion wavelets have been used extensively in computer science, especially in machine learning. (wikipedia.org)

###### example

- The sample image at the start of this article is an example of two dimensional error diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
- An example of direct diffusion is between the United States and Canada , where the people living on the border of these two countries engage in hockey, which started in Canada, and baseball, which is popular in American culture. (wikipedia.org)
- Some example applications of diffusion: Sintering to produce solid materials (powder metallurgy, production of ceramics) Chemical reactor design Catalyst design in chemical industry Steel can be diffused (e.g., with carbon or nitrogen) to modify its properties Doping during production of semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
- The base formed beyond it because of the more rapid diffusion of the acceptor (for example, aluminum). (wikipedia.org)

###### gradient

- Diffusion gradient" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
- More extended DTI scans derive neural tract directional information from the data using 3D or multidimensional vector algorithms based on six or more gradient directions, sufficient to compute the diffusion tensor . (wikipedia.org)

###### biology

- In cell biology, diffusion is a main form of transport for necessary materials such as amino acids within cells. (wikipedia.org)