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  • opposing gradien
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In addition to the cumulative acquisition of DNA mutations with increasing age, changes in chromatin structure can also enforce stable changes in gene expression programs, that can in turn lead to altered cell biology and disease. (dkfz.de)
  • As part of a multi-group consortium, this data was combined with gene expression and proteome data from the same cell populations and published as a comprehensive resource article in the journal Cell Stem Cell1 in 2014. (dkfz.de)
  • Along with a follow up publication in Cell Cycle2, this work provides a unique insight into the differential regulation of gene expression across several highly related cell populations that together form the apex of the murine hematopoietic system. (dkfz.de)
  • We investigated the role of HOXC6, identified by proximal provirus integration in a large animal hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy study, for a potential involvement in hematopoietic stem cell activity and hematopoietic cell fate decision. (jove.com)
  • Each step of differentiation is guided by various extrinsic factors as well as cell-autonomous intrinsic master gene regulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell-intrinsic genetic alterations, such as gene mutations, deletions, amplifications, or translocations and epigenetic changes have been postulated mainly as the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies, including leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The ZZUi006-A cell line may provide a robust platform for further study of DM1 pathogenesis as well as drug testing and gene therapy research. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene was originally cloned from human myeloblasts and found to be selectively expressed in inflammed colonic epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, ATRX undergoes cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a fibroblast and an ESC, and the cells failed to produce viable chimeras when injected into developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Danio rerio homologue is known as ntl (no tail) Expression of the brachyury gene has been identified as a definitive diagnostic marker of chordoma, a malignant tumor that arises from remnant notochordal cells lodged in the vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant mast cells overexpress the anti-apoptosis gene, bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Stem cell researchers are engaged in different endeavors, including treating genetic disorders and generating new stem cell-derived human tissues and biomaterials for use in pharmacy genomics and regenerative medicine. (medsci.org)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • This order is achieved as differentiated cells carefully organize into tissues, organs, organ systems, and ultimately the organism as a whole. (asu.edu)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mir-92 was also present in libraries constructed from four-day-old fully differentiated cells, as well as libraries constructed from adult tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • ED1 is the most widely used monoclonal antibody clone directed against the rat CD68 protein and is used to identify macrophages, Kupffer cells, osteoclasts, monocytes, and activated microglia in rat tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Epigenetic regulation of adult stem cells in the context of normal and diseased biology. (dkfz.de)
  • However, long before symptoms signal cancer growth, several initiating mutations are generally required to overcome normal homeostatic regulation in a tissue allowing the gradual expansion of premalignant clones. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • M-Ras, induced and activated by BMP-2 signaling, also participates in the osteoblastic determination, differentiation, and transdifferentiation under p38 MAPK and JNK regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We show that lentiviral delivery of a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO) library targeting 18,080 genes with 64,751 unique guide sequences enables both negative and positive selection screening in human cells. (jove.com)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chimera instead contains discrete cell populations with two unique sets of parental genes. (asu.edu)
  • The second way is found in birds and mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Research has shown that CD34+ cells are relatively more in men than in women in the reproductive age among Spinal Cord Injury victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • In an increasing number of human malignancies, tumorigenic potential may be restricted to phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of cancer stem cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • After splitting into two populations, the germ cells continue migrating laterally and in parallel until they reach the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ cells split into two populations and move to the paired gonadal ridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell populations go through a particular type of exponential growth called doubling. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Here, we extend the MSCE model to include clonal expansion of malignant cells, an advance that permits study of the effects of tumor growth and extinction on the incidence of colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal adenocarcinomas in the digestive tract. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acquired mutations in ATRX have been reported in a number of human cancers including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, gliomas, astrocytomas, osteosarcomas, and malignant pheochromocytomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • granulocyte-macrophage
  • Following the infusion of PMF and normal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) CD34 + cells into NOD/SCID mice, reduced numbers of PMF CD34 + cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) compared with mPB were detected in the marrow of these mice, whereas similar numbers of PMF and mPB CD34 + cells and CFU-GM homed to their spleens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • peripheral
  • Here, we investigated frequencies of Th22, Th17, pure Th17, and Th1 cells in the peripheral blood (PB) of AML patients. (mdpi.com)
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of lymphoid progenitors from B-cell precursor ALL BM to proliferate and undergo multilineage differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Primordial germ cells, germ cells that still have to reach the gonads, also known as PGCs, precursor germ cells or gonocytes, divide repeatedly on their migratory route through the gut and into the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-92 is part of a large precursor sequence that forms a stem loop once transcribed into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • We hypothesized that CD expression within tumor cells would be directly related to efficacy and that quantitation of markers of CD expression such as mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity would therefore facilitate prediction of 5-FC toxicity. (jove.com)
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and are carried around the body in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significant efforts put into understanding the CTCs biological properties have demonstrated the critical role circulating tumor cells play in the metastatic spread of carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastasis
  • 4 Metastasis: Cancer cells develop the capacity for discontinuous growth and dissemination to other parts of the body. (docblog.org)
  • While brachyury is promoting EMT, it can also induce metastasis of HCC cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult (such as the floral meristem of flowering plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells are all the other cells that form the building blocks of the body and they only divide by mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • IL-17, the main effector cytokine of Th17 cells, is responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [ 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • emergence
  • Defects in the BM microenvironment (BMM) in recipient BM have also been assumed as one of the mechanisms, suggesting vital roles of cell-extrinsic factors for malignant clone emergence ( 1 , 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • human
  • The human RORC (retinoid-related orphan receptor C) has been considered as the essential transcription factor for Th17 differentiation [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human calmodulin-like protein (CLP) is found in many cell types including breast, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and skin. (docblog.org)
  • The major goal of the project is to develop human iPS cells fro. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plant cells are much larger than animal cells, and protists such as Paramecium can be 330 μm long, while a typical human cell might be 10 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • The abnormal trafficking of CD34 + cells is a unique characteristic of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Normal total(alpha + beta) serum tryptase is approximately 6 micro g/L (range 0 to 11 micro g/L). Values of several hundred micro g/L are characteristic of mast cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • During differentiation, reduction of c-MYC expression after initial reactivation of c-MYC expression in selected hiPSC clones was associated with more efficient in vitro generation of CD41a + CD42b + platelets. (rupress.org)
  • These findings suggest that the pattern of c-MYC expression, particularly its later decline, is key to producing functional platelets from selected iPSC clones. (rupress.org)
  • The abnormal homing of PMF CD34 + cells was associated with reduced expression of CXCR4, but was not related to the presence of JAK2V617F. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since reduced expression of CXCR4 by PMF CD34 + cells has been previously documented ( 12 , 14 ), we hypothesized that PMF CD34 + cells might exhibit a compromised ability to home to the marrow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein can regulate many cell activities and has a highly specific expression. (docblog.org)
  • A direct correlation was found between CD dose (AdCMVCD PFU/cell) and CD mRNA and protein expression (P (jove.com)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that over-express brachyury have down-regulated expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which allows them to undergo EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, highly sensitive, single-cell analysis demonstrated a high level of heterogeneity seen at the single cell level for both protein expression and protein localization and the CTCs reflected both the primary biopsy and the changes seen in the metastatic sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated that miR-155 over-expression supports the development and aggresivness of B cell malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of small RNA clone libraries comparing miRNA expression to all other organ systems examined established that miR-155-5p was one of five miRNAs (i.e. miR-142, miR-144, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223) that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The majority of white blood cells is still functional and an enhanced susceptibility to infection cannot yet be observed. (symptoma.com)
  • We therefore sought to determine the hallmark of such cells as well as the best way to select iPSC clones in vitro for generation of functional platelets in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • It was based on the assumption that the differentiating agents have to be chemical substances either within cells or in the extracellular matrix. (asu.edu)
  • The encoded protein is an antiapoptotic factor that promotes tumor growth and is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that facilitates cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • We have further studied the behavior of PMF CD34 + cells by examining their homing to the marrow and the spleens of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The sequential treatment of PMF CD34 + cells with the chromatin-modifying agents 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azaD) and trichostatin A (TSA), but not treatment with small molecule inhibitors of JAK2, resulted in the generation of increased numbers of CD34 + CXCR4 + cells, which was accompanied by enhanced homing of PMF CD34 + cells to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data suggest that PMF CD34 + cells are characterized by a reduced ability to home to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice and that this homing defect can be corrected by sequential treatment with chromatin-modifying agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By contrast, the myeloproliferative neoplasm, primary myelofibrosis (PMF), is characterized by abnormal CD34 + cell trafficking, resulting in constitutive mobilization of CD34 + cells ( 5 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have reported that PMF PB CD34 + cells contain not only HPCs but also BM-repopulating cells belonging to the malignant clone ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The homing of PMF CD34 + cells and the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and VLA-4 in this process have not been previously explored. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34 + cells. (hindawi.com)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Identification of DNA methylation changes at cis-regulatory elements during early steps of HSC differentiation using tagmentation-based whole genome bisulphite sequencing. (dkfz.de)
  • selectively
  • However, JAK2 inhibitors currently approved or under development for treating myeloproliferative neoplasms do not selectively deplete the malignant clone, and the inhibition of activity of the drug target (JAK2) has not been rigorously evaluated in the clinical studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • inhibit
  • The mechanism(s) through which JAK2 inhibitors exert activity are incompletely understood including how effectively they inhibit JAK2 kinase activity in blood cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Stem cell trafficking is largely dependent on the interaction between a number of integrins and chemokine receptors expressed by HSCs/HPCs and a variety of matrix proteins present within the marrow microenvironment and chemokines elaborated by marrow fibroblasts, osteoblasts, or endothelial cells ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)