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  • murine
  • Recent work from the laboratory of Dr. Azim Surani has identified Blimp-1 ( Prdm1 ) as an early marker of the first primordial germ cells that can be detected in a small cluster of 6-10 cells in the proximal epiblast at E6.5 of murine embryonic development (Ohinata et al. (stembook.org)
  • mammalian
  • 1994) Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM/CD31): alternatively spliced, functionally distinct isoforms expressed during mammalian cardiovascular development. (springer.com)
  • Many of the Drosophila germ plasm components are conserved and play an essential role in mammalian germ cell formation as well, but it is interesting to note that the key factor in Drosophila, Oskar, has no known orthologs in any other species. (stembook.org)
  • TH17
  • The effect of IFN-β-1a on Th17 cells, which play a critical role in the development of the autoimmune response, has not been extensively studied in humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have investigated the effect of IFN-β-1a on dendritic cells (DCs) and naive CD4 + CD45RA + T cells derived from untreated MS patients and healthy controls in the context of Th17 cell differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 + CD45RA + naive T cells cocultured with supernatants from IFN-β-1a-treated DCs exhibited decreased gene expression of the Th17 cell markers retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor c ( RORc ), IL-17A , and IL-23R . (jimmunol.org)
  • A direct IFN-β-1a treatment of CD45RA + T cells cultured in Th17-polarizing conditions also down-regulated RORc , IL-17A , and IL-23R , but up-regulated IL-10 gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • IFN-β's suppression of Th17 cell differentiation may represent its most relevant mechanism of selective suppression of the autoimmune response in MS. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several studies have documented the accumulation of Th17 cells in CNS MS lesions, suggesting that Th17 cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of MS ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 8 ). Our recent study has identified an accumulation of Th17 cells in MS lesions, as evidenced by the increased expression of IL-17 , retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor c (RORc) transcription factor, and multiple cytokines that mediate Th17 cell expansion ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8 + T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • However, the mechanisms by which the mesenchyme controlled endocrine-cell differentiation remained unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Signaling
  • The stimulation of macrophages by certain ligands, as well as pathogen-induced signaling also contribute to the formation of foam cells from macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • This signaling changes the metabolic state of macrophages resulting in decreased cholesterol efflux, which causes increased foam cell formation. (news-medical.net)
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is an unexpected result, because previous work has shown that ERK signaling functions chiefly to induce cell division, whereas plasma cells are considered to be nondividing, terminally differentiated cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • tumor
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. (hindawi.com)
  • In the study, the forced elongation of cancer cells' telomeres suppressed a number of genes and proteins that appear to be involved in tumor malignancy, according to the report. (asm.org)
  • Biology
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • maturation
  • Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell differentiation refers to the normal process by which a less specialized cell goes through development and maturation in order to become more distinct in terms of form and function . (biology-online.org)
  • A new study now provides surprising evidence that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is pivotal for inducing the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1), which is required for plasma cell differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • survival
  • Moreover, Tfh cells were found to be choice of cells for HIV virus replication and survival ( 3 , 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recognizing the vital importance of germ cells to species survival, in many lower organisms including Drosophila Melanogaster , Xenopus Laevis and the Zebrafish ( Danio Rerio ) germ cell formation is rigidly programmed. (stembook.org)
  • Interleukin 7 regulates the survival and generation of memory CD4 cells. (springer.com)
  • tissue
  • Differentiation is also common process in adults: adult stem cells divide to make fully-differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term undifferentiated is used to describe a cell (or a tissue) that has not yet acquired a special structure and function. (biology-online.org)
  • The mature pancreas contains two types of tissue: endocrine islets composed of cells that produce hormones such as insulin (β-cells) and glucagon (α-cells) and exocrine tissue composed of acinar cells that produce enzymes (e.g., carboxypeptidase) secreted via pancreatic ducts into the intestine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • developmental
  • An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs. (umassmed.edu)
  • Processes
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because the data seem to indicate discreet stages of cell differentiation characterized by waves of changes in one direction and subsequent waves in another, cell types conceivably could be redefined according to epigenetic marks that will provide new insights into both normal development and disease processes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In the last few years, important findings have shed light on the processes controlling pancreatic endocrine-cell development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • stromal cells
  • By modulating substrate porosity without altering stiffness in polyacrylamide gels, we show that varying substrate porosity did not significantly change protein tethering, substrate deformations, or the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. (nih.gov)
  • diabetes
  • As an example, improvement in beta cell function as a result of reduction in Tfh number was observed upon treatment of rituximab (anti-CD20) in patient with type I diabetes ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • protein
  • Post-translational control of T cell development by the ESCRT protein CHMP5. (umassmed.edu)
  • Mis-localization of Oskar RNA or protein to the distal pole results in germ cell formation at the distal site (Ephrussi and Lehmann, 1992 ). (stembook.org)
  • For example, does an intestine-cell nucleus retain the genes needed for the synthesis of hemoglobin, the protein characteristic of red blood cells, and a nerve-cell nucleus the genes needed for making myosin, a protein characteristic of muscle cells? (scientificamerican.com)
  • Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. (nih.gov)
  • Pathology
  • Because of association of Tfh cell with pathogenic as well as autoimmune diseases, attempts were made to increase or decrease Tfh cell number in order to reduce disease severity, pathology, and infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • development
  • The accumulation of foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by progressing plaque formation and causing the formation of unstable plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • The protocols provided here are for unmanipulated differentiation, which reproducibly results in the development of a primitive vasculature. (springer.com)
  • An example of cell differentiation is the development of a single-celled zygote into a multicellular embryo that further develops into a more complex multisystem of distinct cell types of a fetus . (biology-online.org)
  • This book presents the current state of knowledge on the origin and differentiation of cell lines involved in the development of the vertebrate male and female gonads with particular emphasis on the mouse. (ebooks.com)
  • In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As mentioned, in many species, including mammals, orthologs of other Drosophila germ plasm components have been identified and have been shown to play a role in germ cell development. (stembook.org)
  • Such hybrids typically die before they reach the gastrula stage, the point in embryonic development at which major cell differences first become obvious. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The importance of the egg's non-nuclear material-the cytoplasm-in early development is apparent in the consistent relation that is seen to exist between certain regions in the cytoplasm of a fertilized egg and certain kinds or directions of cell differentiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It allows the nucleus from one of several different cell types to be combined with egg cytoplasm in such a way that normal embryonic development can take place. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The question is whether or not the progressive specialization of cells during development is accompanied by the loss of genes no longer required in each cell type. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Finally, they looked at older cells that were close to their ultimate fates to get more complete pictures of the precursor-progeny relationships - for example, at white blood cells that had gone fairly far in T-cell lymphocyte development. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Instead, we saw these waves of change during the development of these cell types. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The development of T reg cells is reciprocally related to that of pro-inflammatory T cells producing interleukin-17 (T H 17). (nature.com)
  • On the other hand, AHR activation by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole interfered with T reg cell development, boosted T H 17 cell differentiation and increased the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. (nature.com)
  • commitment
  • Differential expression of surprisingly few genes accompany CD4 or CD8 commitment, a similarity that carries through to peripheral T cells and their activation, revealed by mass cytometry phosphoproteomics. (harvard.edu)
  • germ cells
  • With the commencement of meiosis, germ cells are called spermatocytes, and subsequent to meiosis, haploid cells are called spermatids. (jax.org)
  • Finally, with the release of the morphologically mature product, the germ cells are called spermatozoa or, more simply, just sperm. (jax.org)
  • Endowed with the task of transmitting the genetic information to the next generation, germ cells are without doubt critical cells for any species that multiplies through sexual reproduction. (stembook.org)
  • In egg-laying species, which have limited control over the embryo's extra-embryonic milieu, the specification of germ cells through pre-localized germ-plasm may protect the germline against environmental influences. (stembook.org)
  • membrane
  • Binding analyses in cell-free systems and on the cell membrane demonstrate that C1q and its collagen tail associate with LAIR-1 and LAIR-2 (CD306), a soluble inhibitor of LAIR-1. (nih.gov)
  • divisions
  • By day three, differentiation has begun through a series of mitotic divisions into more advanced spermatogonial stages (A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , intermediate and type B spermatogonia). (jax.org)
  • Following the first cleavage divisions, cells that receive the germ plasm are destined to become the germline stem cells. (stembook.org)