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  • Mice
  • The most striking defects in the conditional knockout mice were complete alopecia owing to a failure in hf development, concomitant with lack of expression of transcriptional regulators necessary for the differentiation of the IRS and hair shaft, and inability to undergo cyclic regeneration postnatally. (biologists.org)
  • In transgenic XX mice (and some human XX males), SRY alone is sufficient to induce male differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice embryos that carried experimentally introduced mutations in the FGD1 gene had skeletal abnormalities affecting bone size, cartilage growth, vertebrae formation and distal extremities. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Dlx homeobox transcription factors regulate epidermal, neural and osteogenic cellular differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • It is now clear that the biogenesis and function of miRNAs are related to the molecular mechanisms of various clinical diseases, and that they can potentially regulate every aspect of cellular activity, including differentiation and development, metabolism, proliferation, apoptotic cell death, viral infection and tumorgenesis. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, she uses cellular and genetic manipulation techniques to study how genetics control both normal and abnormal development of early mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • yolk sac
  • Due to the fact that placental mammals and marsupials nourish their developing embryos via the placenta, the ovum in these species does not contain significant amounts of yolk, and the yolk sac in the embryo is relatively small in size, in comparison with both the size of the embryo itself and the size of yolk sac in embryos of comparable developmental age from lower chordates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy
  • The anatomy of the area surrounding an embryo or fetus, however, is different in litter-bearing animals compared to humans: each unborn animal is surrounded by placental tissue and is lodged along one of two long uterine horns rather than in the center of the pear-shaped uterus found in a human female. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • Research with rodent species continues to provide the bulk of basic information on early development, in large part because of the ready availability of oocytes and embryos, but it is difficult to know to what extent information can be extrapolated to primate species, including humans. (springer.com)
  • However, the amount and quality of basic scientific data on early development that can be obtained from this source are restricted, in part by ethical constraints (Austin, 1990) and in part by conflicting priorities between research and clinical needs for the supply of oocytes and embryos. (springer.com)
  • If hES cell differentiation does not closely resemble mouse embryonic development, a more empirical approach will be needed to identify the signaling pathways that control hES cell differentiation, as we discuss later. (biologists.org)
  • The research team, led by Dr Nicolas Plachta at the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), believe this discovery will form the basis for new methods to monitor normal versus abnormal development of human embryos cultured in vivo, and used for assisted reproduction (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (biospace.com)
  • Dr Jennifer Zenker, a postdoctoral fellow in Dr Plachta's lab and first author of the study, said about the discovery: "Our study advances our understanding of how a healthy embryo forms during the pre-implantation stages of development, before the embryo implants into the uterus. (biospace.com)
  • Moving forward, the IMCB team plans to study how the "microtubule organising centre" in the early mammalian embryo controls embryonic development, cell differentiation, and intracellular transport. (biospace.com)
  • A series of signaling molecules is involved in each step of primary hair development and differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • GATA4-dependent organ-specific endothelial differentiation controls liver development and embryonic hematopoiesis. (naver.com)
  • One such difference is that in mammalian embryos development of the central nervous system and especially the brain tends to begin at earlier stages of embryonic development and to yield more structurally advanced brain at each stage, in comparison with lower chordates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another difference is that during the development of embryonic genitourinary tract, in case of female embryo of placental and marsupial mammals, the uterus is formed, a structure that neither monotremata nor lower chordates have. (wikipedia.org)
  • during the earliest stages of development, the embryo is largely indistinguishable from another mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA4 is a critical transcription factor for proper mammalian cardiac development and essential for survival of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • As seen from the abnormalities from deletion of GATA4, it is essential for cardiac formation and the survival of the embryo during fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA4 is not only important for cardiac development, but also development and function of the mammalian fetal ovary and contributes to fetal male gonadal development and mutations may lead to defects in reproductive development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one (Wg) controls cell proliferation and differentiation during embryos development, specifically in epidermis, whereas the latter (Dpp) plays a role in the imaginal discs' growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual differentiation in humans includes development of different genitalia and the internal genital tracts, breasts, body hair, and plays a role in gender identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1960s, Brinster pioneered the development of techniques to manipulate mouse embryos-his techniques have made the mouse the major genetic model for understanding the basis of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FGD1 gene is located on the short arm of the X-chromosome and is essential for normal mammalian embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of vascular or remodelling in the embryo is widely believed to have been pioneered by Thoma in 1893 when he observed that increases in local blood flow cause widening of the vessel diameter, even going so far as to postulate that blood flow might be responsible for the growth and development of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Janet Rossant, CC, FRS, FRSC (born 13 July 1950) is a developmental biologist well known for her contributions to the understanding of the role of genes in embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • She then earned her PhD in mammalian development from University of Cambridge, England, in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this lifetime achievement award, given out once every four years, the society highlighted Rossant's impact in helping researchers understand human embryo development and stem cell origin, as well as developing the technique of introducing targeted mutations into genes of mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, loss of PcG causes de-differentiation and promotes embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical and functional separation of the inner cell mass from the trophectoderm (TE) is a special feature of mammalian development and is the first cell lineage specification in these embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D cell aggregate formation, termed embryoid bodies (EBs): the aggregate aim at mimicking early embryonic development and instructing the cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • Differentiation of cardiomyocytes in floating embryoid bodies is comparable to fetal cardiomyocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • GATA4 is expressed in both embryo and adult cardiomyocytes where it functions as a transcriptional regulator for many cardiac genes, and also regulates hypertrophic growth of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • germline
  • Their experiments showed that new genes could be, for the first time, introduced into the mammalian germline with the potential to increase disease resistance, enhance growth, and produce vital proteins like blood-clotting factors needed by hemophiliacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trithorax-group (trxG) proteins maintain the active state of gene expression while the Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins counteract this activation with a repressive function that is stable over many cell generations and can only be overcome by germline differentiation processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • For example, most "excess" human IVF embryos in the U.S.A. are destined for cryopreservation or for use in a donor program and are thus unsuitable for any research protocol that might compromise their viability. (springer.com)
  • Mammals do not necessarily have the same human chorionic gonadotropin released from their embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early stages of human differentiation appear to be quite similar to the same biological processes in other mammals and the interaction of genes, hormones and body structures is fairly well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amplified Quox1 DNA fragment obtained from PCR amplification from a human embryo cDNA librarywas digested with EcoRV and XhoI and cloned into the SmaI and XhoI restriction site of the expression vector pGEMEXxBal. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • Pre-conceptional folic acid is already used to prevent defects in embryos. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Perturbation of DNA methylation by depletion of DNA methyltransferase 1 ( dnmt1 ) or dnmt3bb.1 in zebrafish embryos leads to defects in dorsal forerunner cell ( DFC ) specification or collective migration, laterality organ malformation, and disruption of LR patterning. (embopress.org)
  • Knockdown of dnmt1 in Xenopus embryos also causes similar defects. (embopress.org)
  • occurs
  • The mammalian Y chromosome has been genetically isolated without recombination with the X chromosome beyond the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) [ 16 , 17 ], but recombination occurs along the length of the catfish Y and X chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since there is also an increase throughout the six-day period in H3K9me, a marker for active heterochromatin, once differentiation occurs it is concluded that the formation of heterochromatin occurs as the cell is differentiated into its desired fate making the cell inactive to prevent further differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • The IMCB researchers used laser imaging technologies to study live mouse embryos, which develop extremely similarly to humans during early embryonic stages of life. (biospace.com)
  • After her graduation, Barlow took up a PhD position at Warwick University, supervised by Derek Burke, to study the interferon response to virus infections in mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the transcription level, the transcription factors Oct4, Nanog, Cdx2, and Tead4 have all been implicated in establishing and reinforcing the specification of the ICM and the TE in early mouse embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • The effect of Shh on cell survival and differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Shh increased the percentage of ciliated motor neurons, especially in G93A SOD1 culture.Moreover, Shh enhanced cell survival and differentiation of motor neuron precursors in WT culture.Shh is neurotrophic to motor neurons and has mitogenic effects in WT and mSOD1 G93A culture in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, Shh enhanced cell survival and differentiation of motor neuron precursors in WT culture. (nih.gov)
  • Manipulation
  • This "Brinster Method" of embryo manipulation is so ubiquitous in modern biology that other scientists rarely cite the work in current publications. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermis
  • The selective ablation of Dlx3 in the epidermis results in complete alopecia owing to failure of the hair shaft and inner root sheath to form, which is caused by the abnormal differentiation of the cortex. (biologists.org)
  • fate
  • The slight rebound in each of these marks allows for further differentiation to occur by allowing another opportunity to decrease the markers once again, bringing the cell closer to its desired fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Significantly, we elucidate the regulatory cascade that positions Dlx3 downstream of Wnt signaling and as an upstream regulator of other transcription factors that regulate hair follicle differentiation, such as Hoxc13 and Gata3. (biologists.org)