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  • tumor
  • Involvement of platelets in tumor cell metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Nov overexpression results in reduced tumor size in glioma cells xenografts, but enhances metastatic potential in xenotransplanted melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • and miR-23b and miR-137 inhibits PAK2 expression in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAK2-mediated phosphorylation of merlin at S518 modulates its tumor suppressor activity, c-Jun phosphorylation at T2, T8, T89, T93 and T286 contributes to the growth of growth factor-stimulated melanoma cells, Caspase-7 phosphorylation at S30, T173 and S239 inhibits apoptotic activity in breast cancer cells, Paxillin phosphorylation at S272 and S274 activates ADAM10 protease, and STAT5 phosphorylation at S779 modulates BCL-ABL-mediated leukemogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory suggests that conventional chemotherapies kill differentiated or differentiating cells, which form the bulk of the tumor but do not generate new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In different tumor subtypes, cells within the tumor population exhibit functional heterogeneity and tumors are formed from cells with various proliferative and differentiation capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations could progressively accumulate and enhance the resistance and fitness of cells that allow them to outcompete other tumor cells, better known as the somatic evolution model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the dominant population have a similar potential for initiating tumor growth (Fig. 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. (qiagen.com)
  • The Stem Cell Secretome consists of extracellular vesicles, specifically exosomes, microvesicles, membrane particles, peptides and small proteins (cytokines). (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretome of (mesenchymal) Stem Cells has positive effects on reestablishing the intra-articular homeostasis and stimulating regeneration by different growth factors, cytokines and miRNA that are contained within the extracellular vesicles of the secretome. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Refractory macrocytic anemias in patients with clonal hematopoietic disorders and isolated mutations of the spliceosome gene ZRSR2. (nih.gov)
  • During oncogenesis, gene mutations or expression changes accumulate in pathways regulating specific aspects of cell proliferation. (qiagen.com)
  • All organisms exposed to sunlight possess a diurnal biological clock that controls a circadian rhythm of gene expression changes in most cell types. (qiagen.com)
  • Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are manipulated and corrected with gene technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is predominantly expressed in activated, plump endothelial cells and acts to regulate angiogenesis and vascular development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene ontology has also implicated AGGF1 in cell adhesion, positive regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, Choi showed that blast cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells displayed common gene expression of both hematopoietic and endothelial precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD69 (Cluster of Differentiation 69) is a human transmembrane C-Type lectin protein encoded by the CD69 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • SOX4, SRY-related HMG box 4 gene - an oncogene that is known to be deregulated in a number of cancers, is another target of miR-129 in which the aberrant regulation of miR-129 contributes to the proliferation of cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Double homozygous ptena-/-ptenb-/- mutant embryos are embryonic lethal and display a pleiotropic phenotype, including hyperproliferation of endothelial cells, resulting in hyperbranching of blood vessels. (hubrecht.eu)
  • During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells differentiate into 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (qiagen.com)
  • AGGF1 is largely expressed during early embryonic vein specification, and expression is increased when endothelial cells are activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the embryo requires rapid oxygenation due to its high mitotic activity, these islands are the main source of red blood cell (RBC) production via fusing endothelial cells (ECs) with the developing embryonic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout experiments have shown that this enzyme is responsible for the bulk of methylation in mouse cells, and it is essential for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The Den Hertog group studies the function of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in development and disease, using biochemical and cell biological approaches. (hubrecht.eu)
  • Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine residues is an important cell signaling mechanism that has a pivotal role in many biological processes, including cell proliferation, migration and transformation. (hubrecht.eu)
  • In order for cells to grow and proliferate by manufacturing more proteins, the cells must ensure that they have the resources available for protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, for protein production, and therefore mTORC1 activation, cells must have adequate energy resources, nutrient availability, oxygen abundance, and proper growth factors in order for mRNA translation to begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if a cell has the proper energy for protein synthesis, if it does not have the amino acid building blocks for proteins, no protein synthesis will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, since insulin is a factor that is secreted by pancreatic beta cells upon glucose elevation in the blood, its signaling ensures that there is energy for protein synthesis to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • AK2 protein allows hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate and proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there is a mutation in the protein, that means that the mitochondria metabolism most likely will be altered and will not be able to provide enough energy to the hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2017, it was reported that the NOV protein was involved in regulatory T cell-mediated oligodendrocyte differentiation in the regeneration of myelin following damage to the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAK2 kinase activity is stimulated by transforming growth factor β in fibroblasts, by proteinase inhibitor alpha2-macroglobulin binding to GRP78 in prostate cancer cells, by its phosphorylation by AMP-activated protein kinase in stem and cancer cells and eryptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • microenvironment
  • Publications] 井上 達他: 'Hemopoietic stem cell growth and microenvironment of the senescent mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] T. Inoue, Y. Hirabayashi, H. Sasaki, H. Kuramoto, S. Matsuyama, M. Kanisawa: 'Hemopoietic stem cell growth and microenvironment of the senescent mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These studies and others supported the idea that bone cells create the HSC niche, and all the research that elucidated this specialized hematopoietic microenvironment stemmed from these landmark studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Banerjee's research focuses on the maintenance of blood stem cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells that are maintained within a microenvironment where signals from a niche are important for the maintenance of quiescence within a precursor population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Brain tumors, uncontrolled cellular growth in the cranium or spinal column, arise from any of the cell types found in the brain, such as neurons, glial cells, astrocytes, or cells of the meninges. (qiagen.com)
  • These cells acquire a large and flat cellular appearance, decrease contacts with other cells, and increase adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (qiagen.com)
  • In 1978, after observing that the prototypical colony-forming stem cells were less capable at replacing differentiated cells than bone marrow cells injected into irradiated animals, Schofield proposed that a specialized environment in the bone marrow allows these precursor cells to maintain their cellular reconstitution potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these involve erratic cellular development and differentiation in the bone marrow leading to dramatic alterations in the normal population of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though not only stem cells possess a secretome which influences their cellular environment, their secretome currently appears to be the most relevant for therapeutic use. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Banerjee joined UCLA in 1988 as an Assistant Professor and attained the rank of Full Professor in 1994 in the Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Martin P, Papayannopoulou T. HEL cells: a new human erythroleukemia cell line with spontaneous and induced globin expression. (springer.com)
  • Growth response of acute myeloblasts leukemia cells to recombinant human thrombopoietin. (springer.com)
  • Functional isolation and characterization of human hematopoietic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Some of the most common ones are: EVI_1a, EVI_1b, EVI_1c, EVI_1d, and EVI_3L are all variants in the 5' untranslated region, and all except EVI_1a are specific to human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used type of stem cells for therapeutic use are human (autologous) Mesenchymal Stem Cells, hMSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoiesis
  • The pioneering work of Till and McCulloch in 1961 experimentally confirmed the development of blood cells from a single precursor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), creating the framework for the field of hematopoiesis to be studied over the following decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric cancer
  • It is thought to promote cancer cell proliferation in gastric cancer and has also been found to be more than 50x overexpressed in osteosarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many different tumour cell lines, such as gastric cancer, medulloblastoma and endometrial cancer, lung andeocarcinoma and colorectal carcinoma, there are lower levels of miR-129 indicating that it may play a role in the suppression of cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Hypothetically, one reason may be related to the accumulation of senescent cells and their associated secretory phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Interestingly, Insulin stimulation of neuronal cells also antagonizes PAK2 kinase activity, leading to an increased glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-β signaling induces transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15Ink4B or p21Cip1, which, as a consequence, act to halt the cell cycle and stop proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence to suggest that miR-129 directly targets Cdk6, cyclin dependant kinase 6- a cell proliferation regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • paracrine
  • The stem cell secretome, (also referred to as the stromal cell secretome), is a collective term for the paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells and utilized for their inter-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to inter-cell communication, the paracrine factors are also responsible for tissue development, homeostasis and (re-)generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paracrine activity of stem cells, i.e. the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and/or inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to orthopaedic conditions such as arthritis, the paracrine factors of stem cell-based therapies appeared to be responsible for the majority of regenerative effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been hypothesized that future therapies aiming at generating a (specific) secretome with a defined profile, and optimized concentrations of paracrine factors will yield a better, more reliable and controlled outcome as compared to previous approaches that rely solely on injecting (mesenchymal) stem cells into the body and hope that their paracrine (or trans differentiation) capacity will have beneficial effects in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Hematopoietic dysregulation can result in an excess or a lack of certain blood cell types, leading to immune system disorders, cancer, various anemias, or coagulopathy. (qiagen.com)