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  • regulate
  • Forward and reverse signaling through the EFNB2/EPHB3 complex also regulate migration and adhesion of cells that tubularize the urethra and septate the cloaca. (uniprot.org)
  • genes
  • chromatin: DNA-protein complex The eukaryotic genome and the prokaryotic genome are similar in expressing genes, but two main differences are that eukaryotic genomes are organized into chromatin and are much larger, and that cell specialization in eukaryotes is extremely important. (coursehero.com)
  • differential gene expression: expression of different genes by cells with the same genome Cell differentiation is a difference in specific cells. (coursehero.com)
  • 6 , 7 ), as well as other genes thought to be important in breast luminal epithelial cell biology, including LIV1, RERG , and TFF3 ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • STAT3 protein regulates genes that are involved in cell growth and division, cell movement, and the self-destruction of cells. (medindia.net)
  • tumor
  • Collectively, our findings strongly suggest that entinostat potentiates doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity and retinoid-driven differentiation to achieve significant tumor regression in TNBC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Loss of B-cell translocation gene-2 in estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinoma is associated with tumor grade and overexpression of cyclin d1 protein. (nih.gov)
  • Neuroblastoma is an embryonal extracranial solid tumor originating from undifferentiated neural crest cell and it is the most common among children. (intechopen.com)
  • New insights into tumor biology are leading to the development of novel therapeutic approaches, which include small-molecule inhibitors as well as epigenetic approaches, noncoding-RNA, and cell-based immunologic therapies. (intechopen.com)
  • To understand the relationship between TCR density and antigen affinity for TCR in the outcome of stimulation with antigen and differentiation of CTL recognizing tumor antigen, we analyzed perforin induction in ovarian tumor-associated lymphocytes in response to the smallest possible changes in the atomic forces of interaction between antigen and TCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human CD8 + cells expressing higher-than-average numbers of TCR (TCR hi ) reportedly have high functional avidity for their tumor targets (1-3) , as shown by their ability to lyse targets pulsed with smaller amounts of exogenous antigen (10 −7 to 10 −8 mol/L) than do CTLs expressing fewer TCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that tumor antigen transmitted a negative signal to block the differentiation of those CTLs and that the cytokines used for CTL expansion apparently amplified the negative signal. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used CTLs isolated from tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) that recognize an epitope from the HER-2/ neu proto-oncogene, which is present on normal epithelial cells but is also overexpressed in many epithelial cancers of the breast, lung, prostate, and ovary (5) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epigenetic enzymes also exhibit different expression profiles in tumor cells relative to normal cells, suggesting a role for DNA methylation and chromatin modification in oncogenesis. (qiagen.com)
  • Expansion
  • Expansion and differentiation of TCR hi Perf + CTL required an agonist of optimal CH 2 side chain length, which in this study was equal to two CH 2 groups appended to E75 at the Gly 4 position. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expansion of β-cell mass resulted in attenuation of postpancreatectomy hyperglycemia ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Controlling the expansion of somatic stem cells is a major factor hampering their study and use in therapy. (jove.com)
  • Here we describe a system to temporally control neural stem cells expansion during development and adulthood, which can be used to increase the number of neurons generated in the mouse brain. (jove.com)
  • Somatic stem cells can divide to generate additional stem cells (expansion) or more differentiated cell types (differentiation), which is fundamental for tissue formation during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis during adulthood 1 . (jove.com)
  • maturation
  • Long noncoding RNAs contribute to the correct differentiation and maturation of various hematopoietic lineages by assisting with the activation of transcriptional programs in a time- and cell-dependent manner. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, knockdown of Uqcrc1 and Letm1 expression shows that they are required not only for beige adipocyte differentiation but also for preadipocyte maturation. (sciencemag.org)
  • expression
  • Explain the relationship between differentiation and differential gene expression. (coursehero.com)
  • gene expression: transcription Gene expressions generally controlled are mostly found in the transcription step in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. (coursehero.com)
  • To learn more about the early and probably decisive mechanisms of this process, we have studied dynamic gene expression changes during the first 4 d of in vitro neurosphere differentiation with cDNA microarrays. (jneurosci.org)
  • For example, GATA3 mRNA is down-regulated in normal breast xenograft samples after estradiol treatment ( 11 ), but estradiol-treated MCF-7 cells do not show altered expression of GATA3 mRNA ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have previously shown that expression deregulation of human ASAP results in profound defects in mitotic spindle formation and mitotic progression leading to aneuploidy, cytokinesis defects and/or cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Last, we identify BM-resident macrophages as the main cells that provide survival signals to PBs and show that this function is slowly acquired in early life, in parallel to a progressive acquisition of APRIL expression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Normally, LRP5 inhibits the expression of TPH1, the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin production in enterochromaffin cells. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, Slug cannot trigger the second phase, which includes the induction of cell motility, repression of the cytokeratin expression, and activation of vimentin expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The altered expression of p63 isoforms reduced cell-cell adhesion and increased the migratory properties of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms are fundamental to understanding the regulatory networks ofgene expression that govern stem cell maintenance and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biology
  • Address correspondence to: Fabiola Moretti, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64, 00143 Rome, Italy. (jci.org)
  • Hematopoiesis: an evolving paradigm for stem cell biology. (springer.com)
  • Since then, he has investigated how PML-RARα drives leukaemogenesis and the mechanisms underlying the exquisite clinical response to retinoic acid and arsenic, addressing issues of transcriptional control, cell biology, proteolysis and mouse modelling. (nature.com)
  • retinoic
  • Differentiation therapy in the treatment of leukemia is often hampered by limitations on using certain pharmaceutical regents or on the required doses due to various reasons, such as drug-resistance and retinoic acid syndrome. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • populations
  • To elucidate the significance of TCR density in the differentiation of TCR hi cells to cytolytic effectors, we modified the affinity of the ligand (antigen) for the receptor (TCR) and simultaneously analyzed the responses of two polyclonal CD8 + populations from the same individual that differed in the levels of TCR by one order of magnitude. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flow Cytometry, as a process for identifying cell populations, encompasses more than detection of cell markers by fluorescently labeled antibodies. (rndsystems.com)
  • subset
  • This process generates a subset of post-germinal center B cells that are committed to the plasma cell fate (ie, express Blimp-1 and secrete antigen-specific Ig). (bloodjournal.org)
  • immune
  • The vaccine is "designed to train your immune system to recognize and kill malignant cells. (mercola.com)
  • MicroRNAs: new regulators of immune cell development and function. (springer.com)
  • cellular
  • In the present study, we used human neuroepithelial stem cells from healthy donors and from an autistic patient bearing a bi-allelic deletion in the gene encoding for NRXN1 to evaluate whether MeHg would induce cellular changes comparable to those seen in cells derived from the ASD patient. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our work aims to use Gal-Knock-Out (Gal-KO) pig AMSCs to associate cellular immunomodulation, humoral down-elicitation of Gal-KO cells and osteogenic capacity of AMSCs. (nih.gov)
  • Humoral/cellular reactions against Gal+ vs. Gal-KO osteogenic differentiated pig AMSC xenografts were assessed in an immunocompetent rodent model. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of the cellular immunomodulation with the Gal-KO phenotype of AMSCs can significantly improve the cellular engraftment of pig osteogenic cells by delaying xenorejection. (nih.gov)
  • findings
  • The findings are exciting, to say the least, because while basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas -- the two most common types of skin cancer -- are highly curable even by conventional medical standards, there are serious disadvantages with the common treatments. (spiritofchange.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These treatments can't distinguish normal cells from cancer cells so kill both. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Increases access of nutrients to cancer cells so are more succeptible to treatment. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • That might be helpful against cancer but not so helpful in some cell development or repair, including of the nervous system. (wordpress.com)
  • The premise is that since cancer cells need glucose to thrive, and carbohydrates turn into glucose in your body, then cutting out carbs literally starves the cancer cells. (coconutoil.com)
  • Glucose and glutamine are major fuels for malignant cancer cells. (coconutoil.com)
  • We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and metabolically challenged. (coconutoil.com)
  • Omega-3 fats tend to reduce cancer cell growth while highly processed and toxic omega-6 fats have been found to cause cancer growth. (mercola.com)
  • Induction of anoikis by doxazosin in prostate cancer cells is associated with activation of caspase-3 and a reduction of focal adhesion kinase. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, several studies evaluated the 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) distribution patterns, which distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, and how CpG methylation contributes to the oncogenic phenotype. (intechopen.com)
  • Because HER-2 is a self-antigen, most T cells of high affinity for HER-2 epitopes are deleted (6) , and the remainder cells recognize HER-2 peptides with low avidity (at about 10 −6 mol/L). Nevertheless, because the same HER-2 CTL epitopes are presented by substantial proportions of tumors, the CTL epitopes from HER-2 become significant for cancer therapy (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Instruction of haematopoietic lineage choices, evolution of transcriptional landscapes and cancer stem cell hierarchies derived from an AML1-ETO mouse model. (springer.com)
  • epithelial
  • Epithelial cells are closely connected to each other by tight junctions , gap junctions and adherens junctions , have an apico-basal polarity , polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and are bound by a basal lamina at their basal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in several pancreatic cell types, most notably the β-cell, but also on α-cells, acinar cells, and ductal epithelial cells ( 4 , 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • genome
  • Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. (coconutoil.com)
  • Summary The architecture of DNA in the cell nucleus is an emerging epigenetic key contributor to genome function. (europa.eu)
  • mice
  • A mechanism, which regulates stem-cell differentiation in mice testes, suggests a similar process that may trigger degenerative disease in humans, scientists have said. (medindia.net)
  • We examined β-cell mass regeneration after 70% Ppx in mice receiving the GLP-1 antagonist Ex9-39 and in GLP-1R −/− mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Ex9-39-treated sham-operated mice, persistent fasting hyperglycemia was observed, but β-cell mass was not diminished. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, β-cell mass recovery of Ppx mice was not impaired by Ex9-39. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, GLP-1R −/− CD1 mice showed worse glucose intolerance after Ppx compared with wild-type CD1 Ppx mice, and this correlated with a significant defect in β-cell mass regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The recovery of β-cell mass differed markedly in the BALB/c and CD1 control mice, indicating a significant role of genetic background in the regulation of β-cell mass. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These studies point to a role for endogenous GLP-1 in β-cell regeneration after Ppx in mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • growth
  • The cell cycle is the process of cell growth and division. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • In two experimental series in which we withdrew epidermal growth factor and added the neurotrophins Neurotrophin-4 or BDNF, four time points were investigated: undifferentiated cells grown as neurospheres, and cells 24, 48, and 96 hr after differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells, contribute to the postnatal maintenance, growth, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ligand
  • In ligand/receptor interactions, when the concentration of the ligand is constant, the effects of the ligand on the cell depend on the density of its receptor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • malignant
  • Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aspiration biopsy cytology of the neck and axillary lymph nodes showed malignant thyroid follicular epithelium-derived cells. (biomedcentral.com)