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  • infants
  • After the NRC report, the newly enacted FQPA aimed to fundamentally change U.S. policies in governing the acceptability of pesticide residues in foods and required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assure the public that there is a "reasonable certainty of no harm" from pesticide exposures for pregnant women, infants, children, and other vulnerable groups. (nih.gov)
  • residues
  • We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). (nih.gov)
  • After the NRC report, the newly enacted FQPA aimed to fundamentally change U.S. policies in governing the acceptability of pesticide residues in foods and required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assure the public that there is a "reasonable certainty of no harm" from pesticide exposures for pregnant women, infants, children, and other vulnerable groups. (nih.gov)
  • PCBs
  • Separate and combined dietary exposures were determined for PCDD/Fs and PCBs. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce. (usgs.gov)
  • rats
  • Hepatocellular hypertrophy and cell proliferation in Sprague-Dawley rats from dietary exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate results from increased expression of xenosensor nuclear receptors PPARα and CAR/PXR. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • consumption
  • The consumption of animal products with high fat content, such as meat and dairy products, can increase human exposure to dioxins. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Toddlers aged 2-4 years were estimated to have the highest exposure to dioxins (mean 6.2-36.7 and 95th percentile 12.1-66.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, lower to upper bound respectively) due to their higher food consumption relative to body weight. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Based on fatty acid and mercury levels in fish species of the Dehcho, and results from the FFQ, estimates for mercury exposure from fish consumption among the Dehcho population indicated that up to 7% of trials exceeded the pTWI of 3.29 μg/kg/week (0.47 μg/kg/day). (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In this issue of EHP , researchers report that fast food consumption appears to be one source of exposure to the chemicals di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP). (nih.gov)
  • phthalates
  • Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. (ovid.com)
  • This raises questions about disproportionate exposures to phthalates found in fast food. (nih.gov)
  • The fact that non-Hispanic blacks showed a steeper dose-response curve to fast food and DEHP is an important contribution to the environmental justice field since it suggests a potential connection between neighborhood environments, food choices, and phthalates exposure," says lead author Ami Zota, an assistant professor of environmental and occupational health at George Washington University. (nih.gov)
  • The study measured only exposures, not the potential health effects of fast food itself or of exposure to phthalates in fast food. (nih.gov)
  • humans
  • Long term high levels of exposure to dioxins have the potential to cause a range of toxic effects in animals and humans, including skin lesions, reproductive disorders and cancer. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • There is an evidence that endosulfan is acutely poisonous to humans through both accidental and intentional exposure [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The potential for health effects on humans with exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has raised concerns, and the adverse effects of low-dose exposure to BPA on reproduction have been controversial. (go.jp)
  • Furthermore, direct and indirect contact with PFAA-containing materials such as oil and water-resistant materials, detergents, paints, and fabrics causes high exposure of humans to their toxic properties [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A proof a principle project (the MEDE Study) is currently underway in our laboratories to test the hypothesis that high-throughput, non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting using flow injection electrospray mass spectrometry can be applied to human biofluids (blood and urine) to characterise dietary exposure in humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • compounds
  • Many epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to pesticides is a risk factor for human health, as evidenced by the positive correlation between professional exposure to these compounds and an increase in the incidence of various human diseases (reviewed in Merhi et al. (hindawi.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. (mdpi.com)
  • The diet of children aged 2 to 6 years in the Netherlands is safe regarding the exposure to fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, patulin (toxic compounds produced by fungi), nitrate and organophosphorus pesticides. (rivm.nl)
  • It is unclear, to which extent AC contributes to the overall exposure of heat induced biologically active compounds such as acrylamide (AA) and furan. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. (ovid.com)
  • zinc
  • Effects of dietary zinc exposure on the life history of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zinc caused a decrease in growth of the springtails, which resulted in a decrease in the estimated final fresh weight at the highest exposure level (20 mg/g dry food). (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study was carried out to compare the dietary toxicity of organic zinc (Zn-proteinate, Bioplex Zn®), mineral zinc (ZnSO4), and nanoparticulate zinc (ZnO-NPs) on the basis of some biological responses including growth performance and whole-body proximate composition, and antioxidant enzymes, as well as their accumulative affinity to target organs. (usda.gov)
  • risks
  • The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. (mdpi.com)
  • We also comment on the observed seasonal variations of BMAA levels in phytoplankton and fish sourced from this water body as well as the potential exposure risks associated with harvesting food items from this reservoir. (ovid.com)
  • However, these foods are often a primary route of exposure to methylmercury, an environmental contaminant that can pose significant adverse health risks. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • toxicity
  • However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. (ac.ke)
  • It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. (ac.ke)
  • biomarkers
  • and 4) Assess the utility and accuracy of the probabilistic exposure model at estimating population-level profiles of risk and cardioprotective benefit using biomarkers for omega-3 PUFAs in blood plasma and Hg in hair. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • pesticides
  • Thus many people have a lifelong exposure to low doses of pesticides, the impact of which on human health is not yet known. (hindawi.com)
  • assessments
  • To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform system. (dtu.dk)
  • ConclusionDietary exposure assessments of all drugs based on quantitated residue levels are within the Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives safe regulatory exposure limits. (duhnnae.com)
  • food
  • Legislative measures have been gradually introduced to reduce exposure by removing lead from paint, food cans, water pipes and petrol. (europa.eu)
  • Regardless of the optimal timing for the introduction of solid food, current understanding of immunological tolerance appears to suggest that regular exposures to newly introduced foods help to maintain oral tolerance. (elginhealth.on.ca)
  • Background: Fish are often rich in essential micronutrients including omega-3 fatty acids (FA), and are a cultural and dietary staple in traditional food systems of First Nations communities in the Canadian subarctic. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Potatoes and wheat flour were the most important food categories, contributing with 40-50% to the exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, conventional tools for measuring dietary exposure have significant limitations being subject to an unknown degree of misreporting and dependent upon food composition tables to allow estimation of intakes of energy, nutrients and non-nutrient food constituents. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Conventional tools for collecting quantitative information on dietary exposure, such as diet diaries, food frequency questionnaires and 24 h recalls can be unreliable methods for characterising and quantifying eating behaviour. (beds.ac.uk)
  • dose
  • These outcomes indicate that low-dose exposure to BPA in the diet does not adversely affect reproductive development in F 1 rat offspring. (go.jp)
  • meal
  • Thus, the exposure to AC from the test meal was at least one order of magnitude higher than exposure to AA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg−1body weight day−1, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg−1body weight day−1respectively. (ac.ke)
  • liver
  • Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) via the gastrointestinal route may impose risk of cancer in the colon and liver. (oup.com)
  • Our data indicate that gastrointestinal exposure to DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress resulting in DNA strand breaks, enhanced repair capacity of oxidative base damage, apoptosis and protein oxidation in colon mucosa cells and liver. (oup.com)
  • compound
  • Exposure to this compound can modify the activity of some enzymes involved in oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolism, as well as testosterone metabolism and clearance [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • concentration
  • Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. (mdpi.com)