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  • Rats
  • Increased fructose consumption is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we investigated the time course of development of MS features in high-fructose-fed Sprague Dawley rats along with circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Rats were divided into control and experimental groups and fed with diets containing 54.5% starch and fructose, respectively, for 4, 12, and 24 weeks. (hindawi.com)
  • Increase in hepatic triglyceride content was first observed in metabolic disturbance followed by hypertriglyceridemia and systemic insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that transient decrease in circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels and increased hepatic triglyceride content are the earliest metabolic disturbances that preceded hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed SD rats. (hindawi.com)
  • The current study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) methanolic, aqueous and oil extracts and Plantago ovata ( Plantago ) seeds-supplemented diet in management of obesity in high fat diet-fed rats. (scialert.net)
  • Differential effects of hypercaloric choice diets on insulin sensitivity in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • adipocytes
  • Obesity is characterized by excessive fat deposition and is associated with morphological and functional changes in the adipocytes [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Excessive increases in the number and size of adipocytes result in obesity and metabolic syndrome. (hindawi.com)
  • Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes can be induced by upstimulation with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone (Dex), and insulin and promotes the accumulation of large amounts of intracellular lipid droplets in mature adipocytes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, based on the in vitro studies on primary cultures of mouse white adipocytes, we report that, AT2R activation, either by AngII or AT2R agonist (C21), induces white adipocyte browning, by increasing PPARγ expression, at least in part, via ERK1/2, PI3kinase/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. (nature.com)
  • In addition, AT2R-induced browning effect is also observed in human white adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased UCP1 expression and oxygen consumption. (nature.com)
  • treat obesity
  • Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat is accumulated to an extent that health may be negatively affected and in spite of the number of studies to prevent or treat obesity, its prevalence continues to rise in developed as well as in developing countries . (scialert.net)
  • In spite of the number of studies to prevent or treat obesity, its prevalence continues to rise and it has become one of the major threats to health throughout the world ( Lopez-Jimenez and Cortes-Bergoderi, 2011 ). (scialert.net)
  • microbiota
  • Studies have demonstrated that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with profound microbiotal changes, and the induction of a metabolic syndrome phenotype through fecal transplants corroborates the important role of the microbiota in this disease. (jci.org)
  • Further, novel hypothesizes suggesting role of fructose-induced modifications in epigenetics, gut microbiota and oxidative stress on disease pathogenesis are reviewed based on recent clinical trials. (deepdyve.com)
  • This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition. (hindawi.com)
  • Early development of gut microbiota may impact the programming of obesity as it does for neurodevelopmental traits. (frontiersin.org)
  • overweight
  • The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. (hindawi.com)
  • The most widely parameter utilized in order to define overweight and obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI, defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several studies have proved that overweight and obesity are positively correlated with increased risk of mortality in 50-year-old nonsmokers [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Considering that in 1980 children who were at or above 85th percentile were 5.5%, this study reveals a huge increase in US obesity and overweight rates, though since 2006 no relevant further increase of the BMI-stated obesity has been observed [ 12 ] (Figure 2 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries Over 25 Years. (jonbarron.org)
  • The study reports that approximately four million deaths in 2015 were a result of conditions related to overweight or obesity. (jonbarron.org)
  • Obesity is regarded as one of the main medical problem of the XXI century: according to WHO data (2014), more than 1.9 billion people are overweight, and 600 million are affected by obesity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • comorbidities
  • Obesity and its comorbidities exhibit a gender-related dimorphism. (intechopen.com)
  • However, after menopause, excessive fat depositions in obese women show a shift to favor the visceral depot in a male-like manner, resulting in an increased risk for obesity and associated comorbidities [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • weight gain and obesity
  • Over weeks, months, or years, a small cumulative impact of sustained positive energy balance results in weight gain and obesity ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Insufficient sleep is a risk factor of weight gain and obesity ( 11 ⇓ - 13 ), yet how insufficient sleep contributes to this risk is unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Despite the current health and wellness craze, weight gain and obesity continue to rise. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • therapeutic
  • Among alternative and complementary therapeutic methods for obesity treatment, Traditional Chinese Medicine and particularly acupuncture that have been practiced for thousands of years in China, have been increasingly used for the efficient control of body weight without producing negative side effects and weight regain. (omicsonline.org)
  • visceral
  • Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity, Second Edition focuses on the important role that exercise, dietary changes and foods play in promoting and reducing visceral fat. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • clinical
  • American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists reported that natural therapies for obesity may be beneficial but studies were needed to prove their safety and efficacy ( AACE/ACE obesity Task Force, 1998 ). (scialert.net)
  • Clinical evidence indicated the coexistence of metabolic syndrome and depression. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In addition, discussions of the importance of dietary approaches to reduce abdominal obesity, along with clinical approaches, are discussed, including costs and risks. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • These reports describe the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for obesity. (omicsonline.org)
  • risk
  • Obesity is established to be the main risk factor for MetS. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Oxidative myofibers, also known as slow-twitch myofibers, help maintain the metabolic health of mammals, and it has been proposed that decreased numbers correlate with increased risk of obesity. (jci.org)
  • Role
  • To confirm the apparent central role of IKKβ/NF-κB signalling in the control of glucose- and energy homeostasis we genetically inhibited this pathway in neurons of the arcuate nucleus, one key centre for control of energy homeostasis, via specific AAV2-mediated over-expression of IκBα, which inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results reinforce a specific role of central pro-inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signalling in the development and potential treatment of DIO-induced co-morbidities. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The role of γ-aminobutyric acid and serotonin in metabolic syndrome-associated anxiety were also evaluated. (ijpsonline.com)
  • GABA agonists partially reversed the metabolic syndrome-associated anxiety, suggesting a role for GABAergic pathway. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The transcriptional coactivator PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) plays a central role in maintaining levels of oxidative myofibers in skeletal muscle. (jci.org)
  • cytokines
  • In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • In central obesity, increased secretions of cytokines and growth factors are not causal factors of developing insulin resistance, and unrestrained cell proliferation, but rather, they are compensatory processes so as to increase estrogen synthesis and ER transactivation. (intechopen.com)