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  • species
  • The adaptations necessary for long-term chloroplast survival arose independently in species feeding on different algal hosts, providing a valuable study system for examining the parallel evolution of this unique trophic strategy. (beds.ac.uk)
  • endosymbiosis
  • A rare adaptation that rests somewhere between endosymbiosis and predation is the retention of functional chloroplasts within the bodies of herbivores. (beds.ac.uk)
  • known
  • Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). (beds.ac.uk)
  • alga
  • Chlamydomonas nivalis is a green alga that owes its red color to a bright red carotenoid pigment, which protects the chloroplast from intense visible and also ultraviolet radiation, as well as absorbing heat, which provides the alga with liquid water as the snow melts around it. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Many chloroplast DNAs contain two inverted repeats, which separate a long single copy section (LSC) from a short single copy section (SSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • double
  • The results of the microscopy experiments led to the idea that chloroplast DNA replicates using a double displacement loop (D-loop). (wikipedia.org)