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  • type
  • An increasing number of data obtained during the last 10 years have indicated changes in gut bacterial composition or function in type 2 diabetic patients. (springer.com)
  • Here we review how pharmacological, surgical and nutritional interventions for type 2 diabetic patients may impact the gut microbiota. (springer.com)
  • This review starts with a description of the human studies relating the changes in the gut microbiota to glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. (springer.com)
  • Although there was no statistical difference ( P = 0.34) in SI between meals in type 1 diabetic subjects, the diurnal pattern of SI taken across the three meals in its entirety differed ( P = 0.016) from that of healthy subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the pattern in healthy subjects showed decreasing SI between breakfast and lunch, the reverse SI pattern was observed in type 1 diabetic subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sub-primate mammals, such as the mouse, rat, rabbit, cow, and pig, express platelet type 12-lipoxygenase but also a leukocyte type 12-lipoxygenase (also termed 12/15-lipoxygenase, 12/15-LOX or 12/15-LO) which is an ortholog of, and metabolically equivalent to, human 15-LO-1 in that it forms predominantly 15(S)-HpETE with 12(S)-HpETE as a minor product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In type 1 diabetics, high-dose biotin may compensate for low hepatic insulin exposure, promoting a more normal expression of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enyzymes and thereby aiding glycemic control. (semanticscholar.org)
  • nephropathy
  • The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the rochester diabetic neuropathy study," Neurology , vol. 43, no. 4 I, pp. 817-824, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • markedly
  • In diabetic cataractous lenses, TUNEL-positive LECs were markedly increased 20-fold, and AGEs were highly accumulated (2.7-fold) in LECs. (hindawi.com)
  • biology
  • S. X. Ma, L. J. Ignarro, R. Byrns, and X. Y. Li, "Increased nitric oxide production in posterior hypothalamus and central sympathetic function on arterial pressure tolerance to nitroglycerin in rats," Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry , vol. 3, pp. 153-161, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycogen
  • Four weeks of moderate exercise improved spatial memory accompanied by further increase in hippocampal glycogen levels and restoration of MCT2 expression independent of neurotrophic factor and clinical symptoms in OLETF rats. (springer.com)
  • observations
  • These observations suggest that KIOM-79 is useful in inhibiting diabetic cataractogenesis and acts through an antiapoptotic mechanism to protect LECs from injury. (hindawi.com)
  • protein
  • RESULTS: Chronic exposure of INS-1E cells and rat and human islets to high glucose resulted in decreased CREB protein expression, phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity associated with apoptosis and impaired beta-cell function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • delayed the development
  • However, the administration of KIOM-79 delayed the development of diabetic cataracts and prevented LEC apoptosis (70%) through the inhibition of AGEs, NF- B-activation and iNOS expression. (hindawi.com)
  • treatment
  • The Rosi treatment was given to ZDF rats for 3 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rosi treatment for 3 weeks restored endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and the expression of eNOS and the adrenoceptor activation at the doses below 10 -6 mole/L in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rosi treatment for 3 weeks did not, however, improve the mechanical properties of blood vessel, the expressions of α-adrenoceptor, MMP9, and elastase in ZDF rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated that chronic melatonin treatment in rats behaves as a white fat browning inducer with thermogenic properties. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Journal
  • S. X. Ma and X. Y. Li, "Increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the gracile nucleus of brainstem following electroacupuncture given between cutaneous hindlimb acupuncture points BL 64 and BL65 in rats," International Journal of Impotence Research , vol. 27, pp. 157-169, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • R. L'Heureux, T. Dennis, O. Curet, and B. Scatton, "Measurement of endogenous noradrenaline release in the rat cerebral cortex in vivo by transcortical dialysis: effects of drugs affecting noradrenergic transmission," Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 46, pp. 1794-1801, 1986. (hindawi.com)
  • levels
  • However, OLETF rats expressed lower levels of hippocampal monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2, a transporter for lactate to neurons). (springer.com)
  • study
  • Gerstein HC, Pogue J, Mann JF, Lonn E, Dagenais GR, McQueen M, Yusuf S: The relationship between dysglycaemia and cardiovascular and renal risk in diabetic and non-diabetic participants in the HOPE study: a prospective epidemiological analysis. (springermedizin.de)
  • expression
  • S. X. Ma, M. E. Comford, I. Vahabnezhad, and S. M. Wei, "Responses of nitric oxide synthase expression in the gracile nucleus to sciatic nerve injury in young and aged rats," Brain Research , vol. 855, pp. 124-131, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • However
  • However, unlike liraglutide-treated rats, NRTN-mediated improvements were not associated with reduced body weight or food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • weeks of age
  • Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the femoral artery was blunted at low doses in ZDF rats at 11 weeks of age and attenuated at all doses in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The α-adrenoceptor was activated and the mechanical elastic modulus was increased in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expressions of α-adrenoceptor, MMP9, and elastase were up regulated in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • known
  • Although the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract is not known, various biochemical pathways, such as the polyol pathway, the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress, have been implicated [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)