Loading...
  • Genes
  • Because the proteins remain bound to the DNA, the researchers can determine which genes (and other genomic elements) were "off" or "on" in the cell. (cshlpress.com)
  • It will therefore be crucial to determine whether the expression state of other genes of the adult donor cell can be faithfully reset during the cloning process," he says. (mit.edu)
  • Pubmed ID: 11779183 Paternally expressed imprinted genes (Pegs) were systematically screened by comparing gene expression profiles of parthenogenetic and normal fertilized embryos using an oligonucleotide array. (jove.com)
  • He has since published highly cited research on mechanisms for allergic disease, desensitization treatments for anaphylactic shock, viral causes of cancer, culturing of human tumors in nude mice, genetic engineering to produce human proteins of therapeutic value in domestic animals, and propagation of engineered genes via cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression 'pattern' of genes related to pluripotency in Muse cells was almost the same as that in ES and iPS cells, while the expression 'level' was much higher in ES and iPS cells and that in Muse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genes related to cell cycle progression and tumorigenicity in Muse cells were at the same level as those in somatic cells, while the same genes were very high in ES and iPS cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gene expression profiling of cumulus cells, genes where increased expression is correlated with higher oocyte competence or better pregnancy outcomes include: HAS2, GREM1 and PTGS2. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • The researchers then created various populations of donor cells with known X-inactivation states (which could be color coded as dark or green donor cells) and used these donor cells to clone new embryos, transferring the nuclei of these cells into enucleated eggs. (mit.edu)
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis), or the nuclei produced may fuse or one of the polar bodies may fuse with the egg cell at some stage during its maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Beddington embarked on the study of anterior-posterior axial patterning in mammalian embryos, beginning with her doctoral thesis entitled, "Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo" supervised by Richard Gardner and Virginia Papaioannou, and was awarded a DPhil in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on cell fate and cell potency in the postimplantation mammalian embryo (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral organoids are synthesized tissues that contain several types of nerve cells and have anatomical features that resemble mammalian brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to apply clonal analysis to study cell fate and potency in mammals, and used this strategy to provide conclusive evidence against early segregation of the mammalian germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Fri., June 1, 2007) - Cloning, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cells, and embryogenesis are hot areas of research at the moment, and protocols featured in this month's release of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( cshprotocols.cshlp.org ) will aid these studies. (cshlpress.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - Settling a hotly debated issue in the field of cloning, a team of researchers from the Whitehead Institute and the University of Hawaii has shown that the egg can reset the developmental clock of a female adult cell, first reversing and then faithfully reproducing an early genetic event called X-inactivation. (mit.edu)
  • X-inactivation is a process by which one of two X chromosomes in female embryos is randomly silenced during development. (mit.edu)
  • provide the first molecular evidence for the egg's ability to reprogram an adult cell back to its embryonic state and show for the first time that the process of X-inactivation in clones occurs in a manner similar to that in normal development. (mit.edu)
  • Since Dolly was first cloned, researchers have debated whether she has random X-inactivation as normal females do or the same X chromosome inactivated in all her cells (the X that was inactive in the mammary cell nucleus from which she had been cloned). (mit.edu)
  • Their results show that X-inactivation is random in the cells of cloned animals. (mit.edu)
  • At the earliest stages of embryonic development, both X chromosomes are active in female embryos, but just before implantation, one chromosome is chosen for inactivation and silenced. (mit.edu)
  • To do this, they used green fluorescent protein to label a gene on the X chromosome subject to inactivation and followed its course in different lineages of cloned embryos. (mit.edu)
  • This random inactivation indicates that the epigenetic marks that distinguish the active and inactive X in adult cells can be removed and re-established on either X during the cloning process, resulting in random X-inactivation in the cloned animal," says Eggan. (mit.edu)
  • Our results imply that the epigenetic marks acquired during normal random X inactivation in the embryo are functionally equivalent to the marks acquired during sperm and egg development, as they both can determine which X will be active and which will be inactive in the placenta," says Jaenisch. (mit.edu)
  • X-chromosome inactivation studied by injection of a single cell into the mouse blastocyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • All of these fake scientific claims are merely "pre-embryo substitutes" conjured up over the years to imply a "reduced moral status" for the early human being -- which makes donating, destroying and genetically tinkering with them ethically acceptable and free from guilt - and assures patents, Nobel Prizes, magic stock markets, and governments rolling in the dough. (lifeissues.net)
  • Xenopus
  • Xenopus are commonly used for developmental studies because they produce large embryos that develop rapidly, are easy to maintain and manipulate, and can be induced to ovulate year-round. (cshlpress.com)
  • Morpholinos are synthetic oligonucleotides that can be used to inhibit nuclear RNA splicing or mRNA translation and are the common gene inhibition reagent in Xenopus as neither siRNA or miRNA have yet been shown to reproducibly function in frog embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment: Gurdon used a technique known as nuclear transfer to replace the killed-off nucleus of a frog (Xenopus) egg with a nucleus from a mature cell (intestinal epithelial). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly
  • Since Dolly the sheep was successfully cloned on 5 July 1996, and the possibility of cloning humans became a reality, Christian leaders have been pressed to take an ethical stance on its morality. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The slices allow scientists to observe and test morphological and molecular changes that occur in a normally opaque embryo, and to see what's happening several layers deep into the embryo. (cshlpress.com)
  • Somatic embryogenesis has served as a model to understand the physiological and biochemical events that occur during plant developmental processes as well as a component to biotechnological advancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa in order for fertilization to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • GDF11 has been shown to suppress neurogenesis through a pathway similar to that of myostatin, including stopping the progenitor cell-cycle during G-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine also inhibits the proliferation of olfactory receptor neuron progenitors to regulate the number of olfactory receptor neurons occurring in the olfactory epithelium, and controls the competence of progenitor cells to regulate numbers of retinal ganglionic cells developing in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • Indeed, Cibelli is also co-author with several noted Founders of bioethics, notably Art Caplan, Ronald Greene, and Lee Silver -- all of whom have published for years using false human embryology and creating "pre-embryo" substitutes in its place. (lifeissues.net)
  • All human embryos inherit 23 pairs of chromosomes: one pair of sex chromosomes and 22 pairs of non-sex, or autosomal, chromosomes. (mit.edu)
  • Controversy surrounds human ESC work due to the destruction of viable human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are collectable from commercially obtainable mesenchymal cells such as human fibroblasts, bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can be isolated as cells positive for SSEA-3, a well known human embryonic stem cell marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muse cells are identified as cells positive for SSEA-3+, a well-known marker for undifferentiated human ES cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that human dermal fibroblast-derived Muse cells were efficiently differentiated into melanin-producing functional melanocytes by a cocktail of cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was shown in human Muse cells infused into animal models with fulminant hepatitis, partial hepatectomy, muscle degeneration, skin injury, stroke and spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hela cells and human fibroblast-derived iPS cells showed high telomerase activity while Muse was at nearly the same level as that in somatic cells such as fibroblasts (these data are shown without running control for the telomerase activity, the comparison is not scientific thought). (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the debate on the morality of human cloning, Christians take multiple positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hard to pinpoint any one, definite stance of the Christian religion, since there are so many Christian denominations and so few official statements from each of them concerning the morality of human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are certain Protestant denominations that do not disagree with the acceptability of human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these pastors acknowledged the reason for this violation being rooted in the religiously motivated view that human cloning is an example of scientists 'playing God. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists do argue that the puberty of views comes from the differing understandings of what exactly human cloning is. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Paul II states, "These techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and destruction of human embryos, are not morally acceptable, even when their proposed goal is good in itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1982 he has been Chair of the Royal Society Working Group on human embryo research, stem cells and cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years Gardner chaired the Royal Society's ad hoc committee on 'human embryo research', and later its working group on 'stem cells and cloning' and in this role he often advised on the scientific and ethical implications of cloning, attempting to clarify the complexities of the topic for a public audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature and lighting can also affect the maturation of the somatic embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Preformation
  • Others, including Thomas Hunt Morgan and Oscar Hertwig, attempted to separate the two cells, for the matter was of great importance, particularly to the arguments between proponents of epigenesis and preformation, but satisfactory results could not be achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Embryos that inherit two X chromosomes (one from each parent) develop into females. (mit.edu)
  • Normal egg cells form after meiosis and are haploid, with half as many chromosomes as their mother's body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • These results indicate that CD40L on B cells causes lupus-like disease in the presence of yet unknown environmental factors that by themselves do not induce the disease. (jove.com)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of different plant growth regulators required to induce callus or embryo formation varies with the type of plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Indirect embryogenesis occurs when explants produced undifferentiated, or partially differentiated, cells (often referred to as callus) which then is maintained or differentiated into plant tissues such as leaf, stem, or roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop
  • Embryos that inherit an X chromosome from their mother and a Y chromosome from their father develop into males. (mit.edu)
  • The auxin typically used is 2,4-D. Once transferred to a medium with low or no auxin, these cells can then develop into mature embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • Spemann
  • Spemann found that one half could indeed form a whole embryo, but observed that the plane of division was crucial. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Transcription factor AP-2 alpha is expressed in ectoderm and in neural-crest cells migrating from the cranial folds during closure of the neural tube in the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial neural crest cell provides patterning information for craniofacial morphogenesis and generate most of the skull bones and the cranial ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is an image showing some of the chemical factors that can lead stem cells to differentiate into various neural tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural glial cells cover a wide variety of neural cells, some of which move around the neurons. (wikipedia.org)