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  • genital
  • At Visit 2 (cycle days 20-25), after it has been confirmed that the participant meets all of the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria, genital samples will be taken and she will be given 2 applicators of tenofovir 1% gel to insert two hours apart. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At Visit 3 (cycle days 20-25), blood and genital samples will be collected. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • She will be instructed to return approximately 3 or 11 hours after insertion of the second gel for Visit 4 (cycle days 5-10) and blood and genital samples will be taken. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Measures
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • proteins
  • It comprises a highly orchestrated network of proteins that identify DNA damage, signal it for repair and cell cycle checkpoints to prevent damage being carried through to the next generation. (mdpi.com)
  • However, how deficiencies in the proteins that regulate mitochondrial dynamics impact cell cycle progression and hence directly contribute to the development of diseases is not clear. (biologists.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 together are required for the stable association of the minichromosome maintenance (Mcm 2-7) complex proteins with replicative origins during G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress granules are dense aggregations in the cytosol composed of proteins & RNAs that appear when the cell is under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stress proteins that are the main component of stress granules in plant cells are molecular chaperones that sequester, protect, and possibly repair proteins that unfold during heat and other types of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her work elucidated the first molecular mechanism for this process, showing that asymmetrically inherited Notch proteins determine whether a new daughter cell will differentiate into a neuron or remain a neural progenitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three proteins have been experimentally determined to interact with C2orf73 through Yeast Two-Hybrid experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The process of tumorigenesis is characterised by a stepwise increase in resistance to apoptosis followed by an increase in cycling cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The cell cycle-regulatory CDC25A phosphatase inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether the sensitivity of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line to SAHA is dependent on the presence of a functional androgen signaling axis and whether the combination of low doses of both SAHA and a specific androgen receptor (AR) antagonist would result in enhanced growth suppression and/or apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • 3) We performed GC cells perturbation experiments through BI6015 (an HNF4α antagonist), AICAR (an AMPK activator), Compound C (AMPK-kinase inhibitor), metformin and BBR. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knockdown of ATR, an essential kinase in preventing replication stress, significantly enhanced DNA damage and cell death of Drp1-deficienct cells. (biologists.org)
  • Combining cell-cycle checkpoint kinase inhibitors with the DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine offers clinical appeal, with a mechanistic rationale based chiefly on abrogation of gemcitabine-induced G 2 -M checkpoint activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon recruitment to damage sites, ATM and ATR phosphorylate a number of substrates, including checkpoint kinase CHK1 (CHEK1), which in turn mediate cell-cycle arrest to facilitate DNA repair ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Early prototypes of nonselective checkpoint kinase inhibitors caffeine and UCN-01 have been shown to induce unscheduled mitosis following abrogation of DDR-induced cell-cycle arrest ( 3, 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Even though the majority of the known CDKCs are involved in the cell cycle, not all kinase complexes function in this manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Palbociclib exerted cytostatic effects in Rb-positive TNBC cells, inducing a reversible blockade in G0/G1 cell cycle phase associated with down-regulation of CDK6, Rb, and c-myc expression and/or activity. (springer.com)
  • This example clearly shows the combined effects that positive and negative feedback loops have on cell-cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasensitivity plays a large role in cell-cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within cells, regulation of flux is vital for all metabolic pathways to regulate the pathway's activity under different conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This regulation may be indirect, in the case of an enzyme being regulated by some cell signalling mechanism, or it may be direct, as in the case of allosteric regulation, where metabolites from a different portion of a metabolic network bind directly to and affect the catalytic function of other enzymes in order to maintain homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • However, her biggest contribution to the world of science so far is the work of her team on discovering the unique mechanism by which Taxol functions to arrest the cell cycle in its metaphase state. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • These cells have been characterized in vitro and tested in transplantation applications, where they have demonstrated therapeutic potential for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. (springer.com)
  • Growing upwards in the young seedling is controlled by two cooperative mechanical mechanisms: cellulose orientation in inner tissues and differential elasticity in epidermal cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • In plant cells, unlike animal tissues, the radioactive phosphorus is incorporated into fewer complex compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of cell growth is the most commonly used endpoint for in vitro toxicity of biomaterials. (lu.se)
  • Moreover, we found that androgen-independent cell lines were less sensitive to growth inhibition and cell death induced by SAHA than the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that p53 status is just one factor contributing to chemo- and radiosensitisation by ATR inhibition, the lack of chemo- or radiosensitisation in the noncancerous cells suggests an element of tumour-specificity that warrants further investigation. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we took a systematic approach to elucidate how pancreatic tumor cells responded to gemcitabine and CHK1 inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vitro
  • 4) Then the LV-HNF4α-RNAi SGC7901 cell model was used to detect the downstream of HNF4α in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • We have shown that SAHA can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and suppresses the growth of the androgen-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft, CWR22, at high doses ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The use of radiolabeled ligands to determine the tissue distributions of receptors is termed either in vivo or in vitro receptor autoradiography if the ligand is administered into the circulation (with subsequent tissue removal and sectioning) or applied to the tissue sections, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA replication in a mouse cell growing in vitro was measured by autoradiography as 33 nucleotides per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • Some autoradiographs can be examined microscopically for localization of silver grains (such as on the interiors or exteriors of cells or organelles) in which the process is termed micro-autoradiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Together, our results suggested a "foot-in-the-door" mechanism for drug synergy where cells were destroyed not by frank G 2 -M phase abrogation but rather by initiating a cumulative genotoxicity that deregulated DNA synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, owing to the multiple roles of CHK1 in cell-cycle regulations, it is not definitive if this represents the predominant mechanism of chemosensitization ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Homology directed repair (HDR) is a mechanism in cells to repair double strand DNA lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HDR mechanism can only be used by the cell when there is a homologue piece of DNA present in the nucleus, mostly in G2 and S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication is a conserved mechanism that restricts DNA replication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • The low percentage of CD146 + cells' DNA content in G 0 /G 1 phase were compared with CD146 − and non-separated cells. (springer.com)
  • This hyperfused mitochondrial network is then disassembled and becomes increasingly fragmented through S, G2 and M phase of the cell cycle, with the greatest fragmentation evident during mitosis in order to allow the proper partitioning of mitochondria between two daughter cells during cytokinesis. (biologists.org)
  • At synergistic drug concentrations, global replication stress was a distinct indicator of chemosensitization as characterized molecularly by an accumulation of S-phase cells with high levels of hyperphosphorylated RPA-loaded single-stranded DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only cells in the S phase will incorporate BrdU into their DNA structure, which assists in determining length of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a diploid cell in G1 phase of the cell cycle, such a molecule is present in the form of the homologous chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three G1 cyclins collaborate to drive yeast cells through the G1-S transition, i.e. to enter S-phase and begin DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase of the cell cycle, many of the DNA replication regulatory processes are initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Looking at the uptake of Phosphorus-32 into the nucleus of dividing cells in the meristem of the broad bean root demonstrated the then "surprising conclusion that DNA replication occurs during a limited period in interphase, which they called "S-phase", the preceding "gap" was termed G1, the subsequent one G2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only are cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes important for the transition into M phase, but these CDKCs play a role in the following regulatory and structural processes: Chromosomal condensation Fragmentation of Golgi network Breakdown of nuclear lamina Inactivation of the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex through the degradation of cyclin B is necessary for exit out of the M phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, they used SAGE data from three moments of the cell cycle (log phase, S phase-arrested and G2/M-phase arrested cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc25A
  • CDC25A phosphatase promotes cell cycle progression by activating G(1) cyclin-dependent kinases and has been postulated to be an oncogene because of its ability to cooperate with RAS to transform rodent fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CDC25A plays a novel role in regulating the malignant behavior of glioma stem cells as a part of Linc00152/miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A axis. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Linc00152 promotes malignant progression of glioma stem cells by regulating miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A pathway. (nih.gov)
  • duplication
  • Murphy, Terence D. "Drosophila skpA, a component of SCF ubiquitin ligases, regulates centrosome duplication independently of cyclin E accumulation", Journal of Cell Science 116, 2321-2332 (2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication of chromosomal DNA is central for the duplication of a cell and is necessary for the maintenance of the eukaryotic genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetics
  • However, by 1957 [3H]-thymidine and [14C]-adenine radioligands became available, enabling animal studies, and consequently the whole basis of cell kinetics was developed from their original concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • In a fraction of these cells, persistent genomic damage was observed, including chromosomal fragmentation with a loss of centromeric regions that prevented proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two decades later, Barbara McClintock and Harriet Creighton demonstrated that chromosomal crossover occurs during meiosis, the process of cell division by which sperm and egg cells are made. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146 + ) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146 − ) counterparts. (springer.com)
  • CD146 + cells may promote mineralization and generate dentin/pulp-like structures, suggesting a role in self-renewal of stem cells and dental pulp regenerative therapy. (springer.com)
  • populations
  • Here we report a systematic definition of how pancreatic cancer cells harboring mutant p53 respond to this combination therapy, by combining mathematical models with large-scale quantitative biologic analyses of single cells and cell populations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • survival
  • Reported data on the impact of p53 status are variable possibly because of the use of unmatched cells and surrogate endpoints of survival. (mdpi.com)
  • pathway
  • Consequently, combinatorial treatments that target different components of the AR pathway may afford a more effective strategy to control the growth of prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Smad3, a key mediator of TGF-β pathway which inhibits cell cycle progression, can be phosphorylated by cyclin E/CDK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it is observed that throughout a steady state pathway, the flux is usually determined by the rate determining step of the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control of flux through a metabolic pathway requires that The metabolic flux in the rate determining step varies based on the organisms metabolic needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In order for yeast cells to undergo homology directed repair there must be present in the same nucleus a second DNA molecule containing sequence homology with the region to be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast cells
  • Seminal work in 1977 found that yeast cells maintain a constant size by delaying their entry into the cell cycle (as assayed by budding) until they have grown to a threshold size. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Metabolic flux and more specifically how metabolism is affected due to changes in the various pathways has grown in importance since it was observed that tumour cells exhibit enhanced glucose metabolism compared to normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975 Dr Renato Dulbecco, then Deputy Research Director of the Laboratories shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on the interactions between DNA tumour viruses and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • On her first day, she suggested to Stephen Pelc that radioactive phosphorus taken into the cell might be incorporated into DNA and give some information on the replication and synthesis of this important substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Her team was credited with establishing the existence of a novel category of anti-tumor drugs, in which drug molecules bind to microtubules in order to inhibit the further division of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • McConnell also confirmed the hypothesis that asymmetric cell division, as determined by the orientation of the dividing progenitor's cleavage plane, regulates cortical development. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Although homologous recombination varies widely among different organisms and cell types, most forms involve the same basic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process allows for the high-fidelity passage of hereditary/genetic information from parental cell to daughter cell and is thus essential to all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCNA
  • The polymerase is held onto the DNA strand by PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). (wikipedia.org)
  • gemcitabine
  • The cytotoxicity of VE-821 alone and its ability to potentiate radiation and gemcitabine cytotoxicity was determined in isogenic and unmatched p53 wild-type (wt) and null/mutant cells, as well as immortalised nonmalignant MCF10 (immortalised non-neoplastic) cells, by colony-forming assay. (mdpi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • The elucidation of the mechanisms by which it regulates Start has revealed a means for it to link cell size to cell cycle progression, but questions remain as to how it actually senses cell size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through studying these changes, it is possible to better understand the mechanisms of cell growth and where possible develop treatments to counter the effects of enhanced metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • Within the same year as McClintock's discovery, Curt Stern showed that crossing over-later called "recombination"-could also occur in somatic cells like white blood cells and skin cells that divide through mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the guidance of Director Tomas Lindahl, Clare Hall became, and remains today, a leading centre for studies of DNA repair, recombination and replication, cell cycle control and transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simultaneous
  • Simultaneous cell cycle analysis and two‐color surface immunofluorescence using 7‐amino‐actinomycin D and single laser excitation: applications to study of cell activation and the cell cycle of murine ly‐1 B cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Here we evaluated the potential of combining palbociclib with PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in Rb-proficient TNBC cells comparing different schedules of treatment: simultaneous, sequential, or sequential combined treatment (pre-incubation with palbociclib followed by exposure to both palbociclib and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors). (springer.com)
  • organism
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrient
  • A soil test can determine existing nutrient levels in the soil. (backyardgardener.com)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. dendrobatidis also contains a variety of proteolytic enzymes and esterases that help it digest amphibian cells and use amphibian skin as a nutrient source. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Then the cells are grown on a dish with the medium that the antibiotic is resistant to and if the insertion was successful, then cells will grow. (macalester.edu)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species belonging to the largest genus, Sphecodes, exhibit especially aggressive parasitism, attacking and sometimes killing solitary or social nest host female(s) before ovipositing eggs into pollen-provisioned host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • ab94065 is a 293T cell transfected lysate in which Human IKK beta has been transiently over-expressed using a pCMV-IKK beta plasmid. (abcam.com)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for missions to the Moon, establishment of a lunar base, and interplanetary travel to Mars, the functional requirements for human performance during each specific phase of these missions have not been sufficiently defined to determine whether currently developed countermeasures are adequate to meet physical performance requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • king May Help Cut Women's Breast Cancer Risk Cedars-Sinai increases the body's estrogen levels fostering the growth of cancer cells. (villa-agata.eu)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • enter
  • These pellets move away at a very high speed as they enter the cell. (macalester.edu)
  • Most nonproliferating vertebrate cells will enter the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these cells come from blood vessels that enter the tendon to provide direct blood flow to increase healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • builds
  • After mating, the female builds a nest with urn-shaped cells made with mud, feces, and plant resin, and provisions these with nectar and pollen before laying an egg in each. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • The royalty rate is determined as an incremental rate from 1-5% of gross revenues until costs have been recovered, at which point the royalty rate increases to 30% of net revenues or 5% of gross revenues. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The Achilles tendon does not have good blood supply or cell activity, so this injury can be slow to heal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acts
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found
  • At least one study analyzing a sample of 35 cases in which a court awarded an ongoing royalty has found that ongoing royalty awards "exceed[] by a statistically significant amount the jury-determined reasonably royalty. (wikipedia.org)
  • life cycle
  • Once the zoospore reaches its host, it forms a cyst underneath the surface of the skin, and initiates the reproductive portion of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • control
  • These 440 base pairs are then compared to the control regions of other individuals (either specific people or subjects in a database) to determine maternal lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • once
  • In larger nests, once a layer of cells is complete, the surface is covered with mud to make a new floor for the next layer of cells to be built. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • help
  • A physical examination and the patient's medical history will help the doctor determine the type of muscular dystrophy. (blogspot.com)