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  • yolk-sac
  • Microglia, the primary MPs in the CNS, are derived from the yolk-sac blood islands and migrate to the neuroepithelium during early development ( 7 , 12 , 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In developing embryos, blood formation occurs in aggregates of blood cells in the yolk sac, called blood islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Existence of the hemangioblast was first proposed in 1917 by Florence Sabin, who observed the close spatial and temporal proximity of the emergence of blood vessels and red blood cells within the yolk sac in chick embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are bone marrow derived antigen presenting cells (APC) which serve in the first step of the acquired immune responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In recent years, different high-throughput platforms have been used for the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and epigenomic analyses to search for new biomarkers involved in cancer and to bring new insights into the several aspects of cancer pathophysiology including angiogenesis, immune evasion, metastasis, altered cell growth, death, and metabolism [ 2 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is therefore possible that reprograming MPs metabolism could affect their function and repress immune cell activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Current immune modulatory treatments are effective at reducing T-cell-mediated damage early in disease ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology have resulted in the use of HSC transplants in the treatment of cancers and other immune system disorders. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Immune cells (white blood cells) in the donated tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as foreign (nonself). (wikipedia.org)
  • The transplanted immune cells then attack the host's body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immuno-competent graft is administered, with viable and functional immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-identical siblings or HLA-identical unrelated donors often have genetically different proteins (called minor histocompatibility antigens) that can be presented by Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to the donor's T-cells, which see these antigens as foreign and so mount an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • As components of the innate immune system, these cells express intracellular Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 which detect ssRNA and unmethylated CpG DNA sequences, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells that carry out the adaptive immune response are white blood cells known as lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main broad classes-antibody responses and cell mediated immune response-are also carried by two different lymphocytes (B cells and T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive immunity is triggered in vertebrates when a pathogen evades the innate immune system and (1) generates a threshold level of antigen and (2) generates "stranger" or "danger" signals activating dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells play a large role in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are intimately involved in cell-mediated immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells also have a limited ability to participate in phagocytosis, they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • These changes can often be tracked by monitoring the presence of proteins on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In antibody responses, B cells are activated to secrete antibodies, which are proteins also known as immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary granules contain cationic proteins and defensens that are used to kill bacteria, proteolytic enzymes and cathepsin G to break down (bacterial) proteins, lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls, and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing substances). (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early hematopoietic and vascular-associated tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visceral abdominal fat (VAT) is a distinct type of WAT that is "proportionally associated with negative metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity", regenerates cortisol, and recently has been tied to decreased bone formation Both types of WAT substantially differ from brown adipose tissue (BAT) as by a group of proteins that help BAT's thermogenic role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful beta-selection requires that TCRβ is produced, TCRβ is capable of pairing with pre-Tα to generate the pre-TCR, and that the pre-TCR can interact on the cell surface with the TCR signalling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • The ability of these cells to proliferate decreases with age, which may be linked to a reduced capacity to repair or regenerate tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additional processing prior to use will be required to extract and prepare any of the multiple cell types from cryopreserved cord tissue. (cordblood.com)
  • The patient's own stored stem cells are then transfused into his/her bloodstream, where they replace destroyed tissue and resume the patient's normal blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • A niche is a subgroup of tissue cells and extracellular substrates that can indefinitely harbor one or more stem cells and control their self-renewal and progeny in vivo [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions), they are involved in the destruction of tumor cells, and they promote the repair of damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these three kinds of blood cells add up to a total 45% of the blood tissue by volume, with the remaining 55% of the volume composed of plasma, the liquid component of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, skeletal unweighting, anti-diabetes therapies). (wikipedia.org)
  • thymocytes
  • Early thymocytes possess multilineage potential, which is progressively restricted as cells transit through the double-negative stages of T-cell development. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, our studies have revealed a new set of interactions between HEB, Notch1, and GATA3 that regulate the T-cell fate choice in developing thymocytes. (asm.org)
  • Developing T cells are referred to as thymocytes and are of hematopoietic origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortex is mainly made up of thymocytes, supported by a network of finely-branched epithelial reticular cells, which is continuous with a similar network in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymocytes that reach the medulla have already successfully undergone T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection, and have been exposed to a limited degree of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medulla is specialized to allow thymocytes to undergo additional rounds of negative selection to remove auto-reactive T cells from the mature repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of thymocytes is the generation of T lymphocytes (T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The processes of beta-selection, positive selection, and negative selection shape the population of thymocytes into a peripheral pool of T cells that are able to respond to foreign pathogens and are immunologically tolerant towards self antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymocytes are classified into a number of distinct maturational stages based on the expression of cell surface markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to create a functional T cell receptor, the double negative thymocytes use a series of DNA-interacting enzymes to clip the DNA and bring separate gene fragments together. (wikipedia.org)
  • To eliminate thymocytes which have made a non-functional T cell receptor, only cells that have successfully rearranged the beta chain to produce a functional pre-TCR are allowed to develop beyond the DN3 stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • The Notch1 signaling pathway is indispensable for initiation of the T-cell lineage and inhibitory for the B-cell lineage, but the regulatory mechanisms by which the T-cell fate is locked in are largely undefined. (asm.org)
  • As a consequence, the cells that do not undergo β selection die, unless they have committed to the TCRγδ lineage. (asm.org)
  • The megakaryocyte develops through the following lineage: CFU-Me (pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast) → megakaryoblast → promegakaryocyte → megakaryocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lymphoid lineage is primarily composed of T-cells and B-cells (types of white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database (SCLD) was created by the University of Connecticut in order to have a more user friendly approach to retrieve and share data. (wikipedia.org)
  • One could go in and compare certain lineage factors between in vivo and in vitro, as well as look at what factors influence the stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database could help compare stem cell information around the world and eliminate taking a global gene expression profiling approach, which although sufficient, is not as effective as it could be. (wikipedia.org)
  • reconstitute
  • In contrast, B-1a cells are relatively well reconstituted by transfers of HSC populations sorted from "neonatal" BM (2.5 wk of age), although the sorted cells still predominantly reconstitute B-2 and B-1b ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • therapies
  • So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • This complicates the design of drugs, for instance neural stem cell targeted therapies for the treatment of clinical depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiresorptive therapies like risedronate or zoledronate also decrease MAT while increasing bone density, supporting an inverse relationship between bone quantity and MAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • During megakaryocyte maturation the cell grows in size and replicates its DNA without cytokinesis, a process called endomitosis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Methods
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34+ cells may be isolated from blood samples using immunomagnetic or immunofluorescent methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • allogeneic
  • Although BM and peripheral blood are both still considered a source of stem/progenitor cells for this purpose [ 8 , 9 ], peripheral blood is used in 71% of allogeneic transplantations [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tests for T cell function: skin tests for delayed-type hypersensitivity, cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine immunisations and commonly acquired infections, quantification of IgG subclasses Tests for phagocyte function: reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium chloride, assays of chemotaxis, bactericidal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 Nov;73:1106-10) and "very small embryonic like" - "VSEL" stem cells, and display pluripotency in vitro. (wikipedia.org)