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  • viral
  • Viral populations can evolve rapidly, even during a single host infection, and the resulting changes in the population ultimately can affect the outcome of viral diseases. (asm.org)
  • The overall intensity of interactions among viral genomes, i.e., competition, genetic exchange, functional complementation, and collective action, depends to a large extent on the probability of encountering different genotypes within host cells, a probability that is directly linked to the MOI. (asm.org)
  • Avian viral infection depends on faeco-oral transmission chains. (bioline.org.br)
  • Herpes simplex keratitis is a serious viral infection. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Appropriate induction of the early Th1 cytokine IL-12 is a critical defense directed against viral infection. (springer.com)
  • antibiotic
  • Using the aforementioned University of Texas evaluation system, the most suitable ulcerations for home care are grade I-A, I-B II-A or II-B. When it comes to grade I-C and II-C ulcers with localized infection, one should take reliable cultures from infected tissues and select an appropriate oral antibiotic therapy based on the culture results. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • antibody
  • The aim of this study was to analyse whether maternal enterovirus antibody status, which reflects both the frequency of enterovirus infections and the protection conferred by the mother on the offspring, also correlates with the incidence of type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of DEN-2 infection significantly suppressed the DEN-2 induced IL-12 p40 expression in monocytic differentiated THP-1 cells. (springer.com)
  • Mechanism
  • Despite this elevated MOI during cell-to-cell progression, coinfection of cells by lineages originating in different primary foci is severely limited by the rapid onset of a mechanism inhibiting secondary infection. (asm.org)
  • prevalence
  • This poor-quality study of the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection among nonpregnant women at increased risk found that screening was associated with a lower prevalence of chlamydial infection and fewer reported cases of pelvic inflammatory disease at 1-year follow-up. (annals.org)
  • Outcomes
  • In cases where drug resistance can lead to treatment failure, new research shows that therapies tailored to contain an infection or a tumor at tolerable levels can, in some cases, extend the effective life of the treatment and improve patient outcomes. (psu.edu)
  • There is direct evidence that screening women at increased risk for chlamydial infection improves health outcomes. (annals.org)
  • There is fair evidence that screening pregnant women can identify chlamydial infection and that treatment of chlamydial infection improves birth outcomes. (annals.org)
  • Evidence is insufficient to determine whether screening men for chlamydial infection improves health outcomes in women. (annals.org)
  • titers
  • IMS obtained 4 weeks after intradermal infection with 10(3) bacteria of the live vaccine strain (LVS) contained high levels of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2a) and IgM (end point titers, 1:16,600 and 1:7,200, respectively) and little IgG1, IgG2b, or IgG3. (asm.org)
  • Only sera obtained 10 days or more after sublethal infection, when IgG titers peaked, transferred protection against a challenge of 100 50% lethal doses (LD50s). (asm.org)
  • Parasites
  • Since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, a fundamental parameter determining their within-host population dynamics/genetics is the multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI), defined as the number of genomes of a given virus species that infects a cell. (asm.org)
  • Exposure to parasites in early life can confer improved resistance to the same parasites later on, and recent research shows that such exposure may enhance the overall development and efficacy of the immune system in defending against a wide variety of infections. (phys.org)
  • characteristics
  • The analysis showed that the treatment leading to the longest time until treatment failure will depend on the specific characteristics of the disease, or even of the patient being treated, but it provides a framework that doctors and patients can use to make more-informed decisions about treatments. (psu.edu)
  • The severity of the disease in birds is depended upon the characteristics of the isolate, the dose of inoculum, the species, and age of the bird after incubation period of a few days (Elbers, 2005). (bioline.org.br)
  • patients
  • Patients may be at greater risk of developing invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections, following cardiothoracic and neurosurgical procedures compared with orthopedic or plastic surgical procedures according to a study published in the July issue of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology . (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • That means using (and testing) the containment strategy needs to be done very carefully, but if done right, it could help patients with life-threatening infections and tumors live longer. (psu.edu)
  • The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons has distinguished between non-limb-threatening infections and limb-threatening infections, advocating that patients with limb-threatening infections be hospitalized, at least initially. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • dose
  • Further studies showed that CD123 + expressing THP-1 cells elicited higher IFNα expression in dose and time dependent induction after infection, and PMA-induced monocytic differentiation of THP-1 cells revealed IL-12 expression. (springer.com)
  • exposure
  • After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. (nih.gov)
  • Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. (nih.gov)
  • cellular
  • The multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI) is the number of virus genomes of a given virus species that infect individual cells. (asm.org)
  • antibodies
  • LVS-specific antibodies were detected 5 days after intradermal infection, and reached peak levels by 2 weeks postinfection. (asm.org)
  • diabetes
  • We have previously observed an inverse correlation between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus infections in the background population. (springer.com)
  • risk
  • This is because women are more at risk of developing a bladder infection, which can then spread to the kidneys. (depend.com.au)
  • The majority of cases, however, are somewhere in between and require hard choices that balance the damage caused by the infection or tumor and the risk of mutation with the damage caused by the treatment itself and the risk of developing uncontrollable resistance. (psu.edu)
  • The standard practice has been to treat infections and tumors as aggressively as possible to minimize the risk of cells becoming resistant," said Read, "but our analysis shows that, in many situations, containing the infection or tumor to allow for competitive suppression of resistant cells can increase the time to treatment failure. (psu.edu)
  • found
  • In rare cases, kidney infections can be caused from bacteria found on the skin or in the environment. (depend.com.au)
  • An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection.P. minutus did not affect the stress response of its host.The results of our study clearly demonstrate the importance of parasitic infections, especially of microsporidians, for ecotoxicological research. (nih.gov)
  • Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. (nih.gov)
  • An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. (nih.gov)
  • A systematic review found a small amount of new evidence to inform the USPSTF as it updates its recommendations regarding screening for chlamydial infection. (annals.org)
  • viruses
  • Influenza viruses are classi﫿ed into either type A, B or C, depending on the antigenic differences of their nucleal matrix proteins, while Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) belong to type A (Sidoronko and Reichl, 2005). (bioline.org.br)
  • findings
  • The findings showed that while infection in both cattle and badgers is most likely nearly under control on their own, targeting badger-to-badger transmission has only had a modest impact on cattle infection. (phys.org)
  • Our findings show that in areas with badger infection, cattle-to-badger and badger-to-cattle transmission is critical to the whole system. (phys.org)
  • These findings are in line with our previous observations supporting the hypothesis that a low frequency of enterovirus infection in the background population increases the susceptibility of young children to the diabetogenic effect of enteroviruses. (springer.com)
  • host
  • Nevertheless, the colonization of a multicellular host is a complex process during which the MOI may dramatically change in different organs and at different stages of the infection. (asm.org)
  • treatment
  • Treatment designed to contain, rather than eliminate, chronic infections or tumors where drug resistance can emerge may delay treatment failure. (psu.edu)
  • There are situations where we can be relatively sure that treatment will completely eliminate the infection or tumor, so aggressive treatment is the obvious choice" said Elsa Hansen , a research associate at Penn State and an author of the paper. (psu.edu)
  • study
  • This study adds an important aspect to our understanding of healthcare-associated infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The results of our study clearly demonstrate the importance of parasitic infections, especially of microsporidians, for ecotoxicological research. (nih.gov)
  • People die when their infections or tumors become drug resistant," said Andrew Read , Evan Pugh Professor of Biology and Entomology and Eberly Professor of Biotechnology at Penn State and an author of the study. (psu.edu)
  • mice
  • Between 2 and 4 days after infection, however, bacterial growth rates in tissues were similar in both serum-protected mice and unprotected mice. (asm.org)
  • However
  • However, few studies have quantified the MOI, and most consider this parameter as constant during infection. (asm.org)
  • However, the exact conditions that S. pneumoniae might face during infections, are poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, a corneal ulcer or infection can cause long-term damage and affect vision. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • However, if acute infection has been stabilized and the patient has adequate vascular perfusion (or it has been restored during hospitalization), proper wound care at home can facilitate the completion of wound closure. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • prevent
  • Clarification and modulation of the early Th1 reaction in different monocytic cells may change or prevent complication from dengue infection. (springer.com)
  • cases
  • In rare cases, you may require hospitalisation for a severe kidney infection where you'll receive antibiotics intravenously. (depend.com.au)
  • In other cases, aggressive treatments aimed at eliminating as much of the infection or tumor as possible - the traditional approach - might be best. (psu.edu)
  • In some cases, whether or not opponents count as minions may depend on the importance of the scene in the story. (darkshire.net)