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  • dendritic cells
  • A. Pimorady-Esfahani, M. D. Grounds, and P. G. McMenamin, "Macrophages and dendritic cells in normal and regenerating murine skeletal muscle," Muscle & Nerve , vol. 20, pp. 158-166, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Using dengue-2 virus, we sought to explore how dengue-2 induced IL-12 or IFNα expression by monocytic and its derived dendritic cells. (springer.com)
  • tumor
  • BTLA mediates inhibition of human tumor-specific CD8+ T cells that can be partially reversed by vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • In marked contrast, human melanoma tumor antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells persistently expressed high levels of BTLA in vivo and remained susceptible to functional inhibition by its ligand herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM). (nih.gov)
  • Such persistence of BTLA expression was also found in tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients with spontaneous antitumor immune responses and after conventional peptide vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • BTLA (CD272) is downregulated with progressive CD8 + T cell differentiation, except in tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. (nih.gov)
  • An encyclopedia entry for "carcinoid," a tumor originated from the neuroendocrine cells in the intestinal tract, bile ducts, pancreas, bronchus or ovary is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • These viral proteins E6 and E7 interfere with the cell cycle by restricting the activity of the cellular tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb. (virology.ws)
  • If an individual is orally infected with one of the high-risk strains (either 16 or 18), the virus will replicate locally in the infected tissue, and as described above, can cause cell transformation, leading to oncogenesis and tumor progression. (virology.ws)
  • pluripotent
  • G. R. Martin, "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 7634-7638, 1981. (hindawi.com)
  • Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 95, no. 23, pp. 13726-13731, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • K. Takahashi and S. Yamanaka, "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors," Cell , vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 663-676, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from dermal fibroblasts," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 105, no. 8, pp. 2883-2888, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Biology
  • B. Baeza-Raja and P. Muñoz-Cánoves, "p38 MAPK-induced nuclear factor- κ B activity is required for skeletal muscle differentiation: role of interleukin-6," Molecular Biology of the Cell , vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 2013-2026, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • The germline come cell program can be an superb model program for checking out the biology of come cells in the framework of their market, primarily credited to its basic structure and quickly recognizable come cell populations [6C (sprentland.com)
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 1. Molecular and Cell Biology Exam 1 Practice Questions Catabolism of pyruvate to C02 and H20 takes place within the of a plant cell. (coursehero.com)
  • In vivo, a particular question we address is how physiological changes, such as those occurring during hormonal stimuli, injury or programmed tissue degeneration have an impact on the self-renewal signals and on stem cell biology. (stanford.edu)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, PMA-induced THP-1 differentiation toward monocytic cells expressed CD11b + , and CD14 + , but not CD123, and revealed exclusively IL-12 expression while stimulated by dengue-2. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, when stimulated with TCR agonists together with IL-6 and TGF-β, IRAK-1 −/− CD4 Th cells exhibit attenuated STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation and reduced expression of IL-17 and RORγt compared with wild-type cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, the Treg cells are defined by the expression of the forkhead family transcription factor, Foxp3. (jimmunol.org)
  • mRNA
  • Treatment of osteoblastic cells with dexamethasone induced a marked increase in the expression of IL-6R mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA were respectively used to determine cell differentiation, IL-12 and IFNα mRNA expression and protein production. (springer.com)
  • THP-1, expressing CD123, which is a plasmacytoid dendritic cell marker, but not CD14, CD11b or CD11c revealed IFNα mRNA expression while stimulated by dengue-2. (springer.com)
  • Because the mRNA transcripts are more stable, viral proteins, specifically proteins E6 and E7, are present in higher concentrations than in cells where the viral genome is not integrated. (virology.ws)
  • molecules
  • One way is by using a specific secretory system to create a channel through which effector molecules can be passed into the host cell cytosol, and the second is by secreting effector molecules into the space between the bacterium and the cell, resulting in a relatively high concentration at the cell surface. (asmscience.org)
  • organ-specific
  • The significance of Th17 cells is increasingly recognized due to their involvement in organ-specific autoimmunity and numerous inflammatory complications. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent reports underline the important role of the Wnt system in vascular morphogenesis in the embryo and in organ-specific endothelial differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The process includes sprouting and expansion of the preexisting vasculature, endothelial cell expression of vascular and organ-specific characteristics, and recruitment of mural cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • osteoblastic cells
  • By immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine antibody, IL-6 did not tyrosine-phosphorylate a protein with a molecular mass of 130 kD in osteoblastic cells but did so in dexamethasone-pretreated osteoblastic cells. (rupress.org)
  • adhesion
  • The come cell nichecomprised of different molecular elements such as extracellular matrix (ECM), secreted aminoacids, adhesion substances and support cellsprovides the crucial molecular cues required for come cell maintenance and cells homeostasis during advancement, ageing and adjustments in environment [1C (sprentland.com)
  • Two types of cell adhesion substances possess been demonstrated to provide such features in the germline: integrins and cadherins [19,26C (sprentland.com)
  • In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues . (asmscience.org)
  • progenitors
  • As soon as these thymic settling progenitors (TSP) enter the thymus close to the cortico-medullary junction, they generate early T-cell progenitors (ETP) or double-negative DN1 thymocytes, known to be CD117/c-KIT + , CD44 + CD25 − [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • whereas
  • Dermoscopically, the presence of a predominantly red colour posed a 13-fold possibility of poor differentiation, whereas a predominantly white and white-yellow colour decreased the odds of poorly differentiated SCC by 97% each. (ovid.com)
  • Th1 cells are responsible for the cell-mediated elimination of intracellular pathogens, whereas promotion of humoral and allergic response is largely dependent on Th2 responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • immune
  • S. A. Przyborski, "Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells after transplantation in immune-deficient mice," Stem Cells , vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1242-1250, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated derivatives are less susceptible to immune rejection than adult cells," Stem Cells , vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 221-229, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • The tumorigenicity of mouse embryonic stem cells and in vitro differentiated neuronal cells is controlled by the recipients' immune response," PLoS One , vol. 3, no. 7, article e2622, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • The consequences of complement activation vary depending on the physiological context and timing during an immune (innate or adaptive) response. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-17 was originally described as being produced primarily by T helper 17 (T H 17) cells, but innate immune/inflammatory cells have also been shown to release substantial amounts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunoglobulin repertoire sequencing has successfully been applied to identify expanded antigen-activated B-cell clones that play a role in the pathogenesis of immune disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • membrane
  • It is composed of several membrane-bound and plasma regulators and activators that can interact with a myriad of cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cilia are hair-like structures extending from the cell membrane, perform diverse biological functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cilia
  • Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. (jci.org)
  • Ciliated columnar epithelium lines the lumen of the uterine tube, where currents generated by the cilia propel the egg cell, toward the uterus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Defective 9+0 cilia of principal cells of the nephron cause cystic diseases of the kidney. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • somatic
  • Each centre consists of approximately 10 somatic centre cells located at the apical suggestion of the testes and can be encircled by ~ 6C10 GSCs [11C (sprentland.com)
  • significantly
  • Interestingly, only MMP-2 expression, colocalized with differentiated cells in retinoblastoma tissue, was significantly increased in the differentiation of retinoblastoma cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The presence of vessels in more than 50% of the tumour's surface, a diffuse distribution of vessels and bleeding were significantly associated with poor differentiation, while scale/keratin was a potent predictor of well- or moderately differentiated tumours. (ovid.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of DEN-2 infection significantly suppressed the DEN-2 induced IL-12 p40 expression in monocytic differentiated THP-1 cells. (springer.com)
  • activate
  • By virtue of their short-range nature and their capacity to activate both lineage-specifying and cell-polarizing intracellular signaling cascades, Wnts can polarize cells at their site of contact, orienting the axis of cell division while simultaneously programming daughter cells to adopt diverging fates in a spatially stereotyped way. (stanford.edu)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, therapeutic targeting to MMP-2 may prove useful for reducing malignancy through the differentiation of retinoblastoma cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Modified integrin signaling impacts specific niche market placing and qualified prospects to reduction of both centre and come cell populations in the adult testes [26,27, therefore underscoring the importance of centre cell anchoring in the maintenance of its border come cells. (sprentland.com)
  • vessels
  • All of these steps of endothelial differentiation are regulated by sets of transcription factors, which, in the figure, are listed in boxes corresponding to specific types of vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • embryos
  • M. J. Evans and M. H. Kaufman, "Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos," Nature , vol. 292, no. 5819, pp. 154-156, 1981. (hindawi.com)
  • Paul Bertone and colleagues present a comprehensive analysis of single-cell transcriptome datasets in staged human embryos, providing novel insights into the choices made at the beginning of human life. (biologists.org)
  • An integrated modelling framework from cells to organism based on a cohort of digital embryos. (iscpif.fr)
  • effector
  • Here we have demonstrated that as human viral antigen-specific CD8+ T cells differentiated from naive to effector cells, their surface expression of BTLA was gradually downregulated. (nih.gov)
  • partially
  • Some of the transcriptional mechanisms that determine endothelial identity and then arterial, venous, or lymphatic differentiation have been partially identified (reviewed elsewhere 7 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • facilitate
  • 13602-53-4 supplier Active signaling between centre 13602-53-4 supplier cells, CySCs, and GSCs facilitate the self-renewal, difference, and success of the GSCs [6,7, (sprentland.com)
  • thus
  • Thus, our model suggests that selecting highly abundant subclones from repertoire sequencing experiments would not always lead to the high(est) affinity B cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although these cells are functional hepatocytes, they are diploid and thus differ from the mostly polyploid mature hepatocyte population. (stanford.edu)
  • Signaling
  • G. Luo, D. D. Hershko, B. W. Robb, C. J. Wray, and P. O. Hasselgren, "IL-1 β stimulates IL-6 production in cultured skeletal muscle cells through activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway and NF- κ B," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 284, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • This chapter focuses on contact-induced signaling of nonphagocytic cells (NPCs) as an immediate postadhesion event, and discusses two major events, one involving an immediate activation of cytoskeletal responses and the other involving activation of transcriptional responses. (asmscience.org)
  • Cells and Signaling in Regenerative Medicine. (stanford.edu)
  • Both loss- and gain-of-function experiments of members of the Wnt signaling pathway were found to cause marked alterations of vascular development and endothelial cell specification. (ahajournals.org)
  • adhesive
  • consequently, adhesive pushes are required to point centre cells to the suitable area in the testis, and come cells to the centre [5,24, (sprentland.com)
  • protein
  • Protein E7 binds Rb proteins, allowing the cell replication cycle to progress so the virus can replicate. (virology.ws)
  • populations
  • 10 -2 for each of the 2 populations of Melan-A-specific T cells compared with all 5 other populations. (nih.gov)
  • early
  • Clarification and modulation of the early Th1 reaction in different monocytic cells may change or prevent complication from dengue infection. (springer.com)
  • The importance of the egg's non-nuclear material-the cytoplasm-in early development is apparent in the consistent relation that is seen to exist between certain regions in the cytoplasm of a fertilized egg and certain kinds or directions of cell differentiation. (scientificamerican.com)