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  • Glucose
  • So, even if both component sugars are the same (e.g., glucose ), different bond combinations (regiochemistry) and stereochemistry ( alpha- or beta- ) result in disaccharides that are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclic
  • Towards the end of the nineteenth century it was realized that the free sugars (not only the glycosides) existed as cyclic hemiacetals or hemiketals. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • polyols
  • Because xylitol and other polyols are heat stable, they do not carmelize as sugars do, and they also lower the freezing point of mixtures in which they are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the majority of extant biological sugars and derivatives ("polyols"), the d enantiomers are significantly more abundant than the l enantiomers (we will note exceptions in Results and Natural Occurrence of Relevant Sugar Derivatives and Enantiomers ). (pnas.org)
  • derivatives
  • We have previously shown that two 2-deoxy sugar derivatives of uridine (designated IW3 and IW7) targeting the glycan processing steps during maturation of viral glycoproteins show good anti-influenza virus activity and may be a promising alternative approach for the development of new anti-influenza therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, inhibition of influenza A virus infection by conjugates of uridine and 2-deoxy sugars is a new promising approach for the development of new derivatives with anti-influenza activities. (mdpi.com)
  • The majority of biological sugars and their derivatives contain higher abundances of the " d " mirror-image forms relative to the " l " forms. (pnas.org)
  • To date, there have been no systematic studies of d/l ( i.e., enantiomer) ratios of meteoritic sugar derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • Such data indicate that early meteoritic compounds may have influenced the enantiomer profile of subsequent biological sugars and their derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • The organic phase of carbonaceous meteorites comprises an insoluble "macromolecular" material ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ), a complex mixture of largely uncharacterized solvent-extractable compounds ( 4 ), as well as discrete (identified) soluble organic compounds such as amino acids ( 3 , 5 ) nucleobases ( 6 , 7 ), and sugar derivatives ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Since it contains no anomeric hydroxyl groups, it is classified as a non- reducing sugar . (wikipedia.org)
  • Two structural features distinguish fucose from other six-carbon sugars present in mammals: the lack of a hydroxyl group on the carbon at the 6-position (C-6) and the L-configuration. (hmdb.ca)
  • atoms
  • In contrast, sugars have two fewer hydrogen atoms, for example HOCH 2 (CHOH) n CHO or HOCH 2 (CHOH) n−1 C(O)CH 2 OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • since he used models with flexible bonds between the atoms, he could easily 'stretch' his sugar models into a position suitable for projection. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • acids
  • Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, once fermented in the colon, produces short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities (discussion below). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, nucleic acids are composed of only d sugars. (pnas.org)
  • In multiple meteorites, we demonstrate that rare and common sugar acids contain large excesses of the d enantiomer. (pnas.org)
  • simple
  • This operationally simple iminium catalyzed activation of 2-deoxy hemi-acetals is a potential alternative to the existing cumbersome methods that need specialized handling. (rsc.org)
  • The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction , which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • In this study, a number of IW3 and IW7 analogues with different structural modifications in 2-deoxy sugar or uridine parts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit influenza A virus infection in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • reaction
  • The cooling sensation is due to the dissolution of the sugar alcohol being an endothermic (heat-absorbing) reaction , one with a strong heat of solution . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Deoxy α- O -aryl glycosides were conveniently obtained by reaction of 2-deoxy-glycosyl acetates with phenols in the presence of TMSOTf as the promoter. (springer.com)
  • amino sugar
  • The repeating unit (except for keratan ) consists of an amino sugar ( N -acetylglucosamine or N -acetylgalactosamine ) along with a uronic sugar ( glucuronic acid or iduronic acid ) or galactose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective DNA Cleavage by Elsamicin A and Switch Function of Its Amino Sugar Group. (springer.com)
  • Xylitol
  • Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute . (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylitol is categorized as a polyalcohol or sugar alcohol (specifically an alditol). (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion changes the sugar (xylose, an aldehyde ) into the primary alcohol , xylitol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylitol is used as a sugar substitute in manufactured products, such as drugs or dietary supplements , confections , toothpaste , and chewing gum , but is not a common household sweetener. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylitol has negligible effects on blood sugar because it is metabolized independently of insulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • beet
  • Sugar beet factories are located in colder climates where the beet is grown and process the beets directly into refined sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystals
  • The sugar refining process involves washing the raw sugar crystals before dissolving them into a sugar syrup which is filtered and then passed over carbon to remove any residual colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • sweetness
  • Isomalt can be blended with high-intensity sweeteners such as sucralose , giving a mixture that has the same sweetness as sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • uronic
  • Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2- O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2- O sulfotransferase ( Heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase ). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • The reduced chemical reactivity of the non-reducing sugars in comparison to reducing sugars, may be an advantage where stability in storage is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Sugar is often an added ingredient in food production and food recipes . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane , and by the fermentation of glycerin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, they are often obtained by hydrogenation of sugars, using Raney nickel catalysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • exist
  • In fucose-containing glycan structures, fucosylated glycans, fucose can exist as a terminal modification or serve as an attachment point for adding other sugars. (hmdb.ca)