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  • decreases
  • N-acetylcysteine, a drug that can be found in health food stores, decreases cocaine intake in animals and humans, and also normalizes the size of dendritic spines. (bipolarnews.org)
  • This kind of social defeat stress decreases Rac1 and causes spines to become thin and lose some function. (bipolarnews.org)
  • affect spine
  • Because it has been shown in some experiments that Cdc42 does not affect spine morphology, whilst others have shown that Rac1 does (via the PAK1, LIMK, CFL1 pathway), the most likely pathway is via Rac1. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Spines occur in a wide range of different shapes that can vary depending on an animal's experience or behavioral status. (general-anaesthesia.com)
  • This type of dendritic reactive synaptogenesis is thought to occur in order to re-saturate the region which has become vacant postsynaptic sites following neurodegeneration caused by deafferentation or axotomy in order to restore partial functionality to the affected region. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • The spines show a lateral expansion that envelops the presynaptic axonal indentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral inhibition from the granule cell spines helps to contribute to contrasts between odors and in odor memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • During hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, the amplitude of the synaptic voltage in spines was increased, consistent with the expected change resulting from the increased driving force. (jneurosci.org)