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  • advances
  • As pharmacological treatment paradigms fail to induce lasting responses, researchers, clinicians, and patients turn to immunotherapy, which - due to major advances - was recently declared as breakthrough of the year 2013 by scientific journal Science ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • melanoma
  • Recent studies in melanoma patients have shown that adoptive transfer of ex vivo-selected and -expanded CTLs can result in transfer of their functional activity in vivo, leading to regression of the patient's metastatic melanoma ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • vitro
  • A number of small molecules have had some success in delaying disease progression in animal models and mixed results in clinical trials, including pentosan polysulfate, quinacrine, and amphotericin B. More promisingly, immunotherapy has reported success in vitro and in vivo in animal studies and clinical trials. (dovepress.com)
  • anti-tumor
  • Since the effects of radiation on the immune system and on the tumor microenvironment may depend on the dose and delivery methods used, when radiation is used to stimulate an anti-tumor immune response in combination with immunotherapy thoughtful considerations on delivery techniques, dose, and fractionation are warranted. (springer.com)
  • radiotherapy
  • After a brief summary on the immunomodulatory properties of radiation, this review will describe some of the available types of immunotherapies that are currently being tested in combination with radiotherapy. (springer.com)
  • radiation
  • Immunotherapy has an advantage over radiation and chemotherapies because it can act specifically against the tumor without damaging normal tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the rationale for trials combining radiation with various immunotherapies, provide an update of recent clinical trial results and highlight trials currently in progress. (springer.com)
  • We also address issues pertaining to the optimal incorporation of immunotherapy with radiation, including sequencing of treatment, radiation dosing and evaluation of clinical trial endpoints. (springer.com)