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  • subsets
  • Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • vitro
  • In vitro experiments and studies in mice showed that CTLs are able to specifically target cancerous cells and destroy them by inducing apoptosis ( 12 , 13 , 17 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • tumor
  • Clinical evidence confirmed the importance of CTLs in patients suffering from melanoma and other cancers, as infiltrating CD8 + T cells found in tumor biopsies were strongly associated with improved life expectancy ( 18 - 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cellular
  • However, conventional cellular vaccination approaches, based on monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), only achieved modest response rates despite continued optimization of various vaccination parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • maturation
  • In this study, we show that galectin-1 induces a phenotypic and functional maturation in human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) similar to but distinct from the activity of the exogenous pathogen stimuli, LPS. (jimmunol.org)
  • Immature human MDDCs exposed to galectin-1 up-regulated cell surface markers characteristic of DC maturation (CD40, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), secreted high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, stimulated T cell proliferation, and showed reduced endocytic capacity, similar to LPS-matured MDDCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Microarray analysis revealed that in addition to modulating many of the same DC maturation genes as LPS, galectin-1 also uniquely up-regulated a significant subset of genes related to cell migration through the extracellular matrix (ECM). (jimmunol.org)
  • During the maturation process, DCs decrease their ability to internalize Ag, while up-regulating the expression of certain cell surface molecules and cytokines involved in immune responses as well as migration to lymphoid organs. (jimmunol.org)
  • CYTIP (cytohesin interacting protein) is an intracellular molecule induced in dendritic cells during maturation. (ebscohost.com)
  • Comparison of two different protocols for the induction of maturation of human dendritic cells in vitro. (ebscohost.com)
  • The functional qualities of the DC generated in vitro are critical, and today's gold standard for maturation is a cytokine cocktail consisting of IL-1b, IL-6, TNF-a and PGE2 generating cells lacking IL- 12p70 production. (uib.no)
  • Methods: In this study, we analysed the effects of OK432 on DC maturation, DC migration, cytokine and chemokine secretion as well as T-cell stimulatory capacity, and compared it to the cytokine cocktail alone and combinations of OK432 with the cytokine cocktail. (uib.no)
  • Type I IFNs induced a surprisingly rapid maturation of monocytes into short-lived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-expressing DCs endowed with potent functional activities, superior with respect to the interleukin (IL)-4/GM-CSF treatment, as shown by FACS ® analyses, mixed leukocyte reaction assays with allogeneic PBLs, and lymphocyte proliferation responses to HIV-1-pulsed autologous DCs. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, improved methods for the in vitro generation of large numbers of DCs from peripheral blood monocytes have been established, thus allowing a more precise characterization of the events leading to maturation and activation of DCs under well-defined experimental conditions. (rupress.org)
  • Of interest, recent results indicate that DC maturation can occur directly from monocytes during transendothelial migration ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • We then examined the surface phenotype, cytokine profile, endocytic and T-cell-activation ability of these cells in support of the proteomic data, and obtained confirmatory evidence for differences in the maturation status and functional attributes between mDCs and the two DC models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During their maturation, DCs lose their antigen-capturing capacity and become mature immuno-stimulatory cells that have the ability to activate naïve T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • moDCs
  • In addition, these genes were overall regulated in the same way in blood cDCs and moDCs, indicating an ongoing development of pro-iDCs from monocytes towards DCs. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In this review, the relationship between murine monocyte subsets and the moDCs that arise from them is discussed. (ovid.com)
  • Overall, monocytes and moDCs exhibit complex and heterogeneous behaviours that are critical in responses against microbial invasion, autoimmunity and allograft rejection. (ovid.com)
  • We have found that mature, immunogenic human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) up-regulate the immune-inhibitory enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Under stringent autologous culture conditions without exogenous cytokines, mature moDCs expand regulatory T cells (Tregs) by an IDO-dependent mechanism. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The priming of resting T cells with autologous, IDO-expressing, mature moDCs results in up to 10-fold expansion of CD4 + CD25 bright Foxp3 + CD127 neg Tregs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and KG-1 cells are routinely used as mDC models, but a thorough comparison of these cells has not yet been carried out, particularly in relation to their proteomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite general similarities between mDCs and the model systems, moDCs and KG-1 cells, our findings identified some significant differences in the proteomes of these cells, and the findings were confirmed by ELISA detection of a selection of proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) are routinely used as an mDC model in DC research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • populations
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that consist of functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous populations. (ovid.com)
  • C) Surface markers on freshly isolated monocytes, GM-CSF/IL-4 induced Mo-DCs, and fresh spleen populations. (nih.gov)
  • Based on this principle, simple modification of a standard lymphocyte phenotyping assay permits simultaneous enumeration of four lymphocyte and five DC/monocyte populations from a single sample. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunology
  • Presents a corrected reprint of the article 'Flt3 ligand expands dendritic cell numbers in normal and malignant murine prostate,' by M. Moghaddami, B. Swart et al, published in the 2002 issue of the periodical 'Immunology and Cell Biology. (ebscohost.com)
  • markers
  • Nesligul Yildirim, Ishak Ozel Tekin, Mehmet Arasli, and Mustafa Aydin, "Further Increase in the Expression of Activation Markers on Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Ectasia Compared to Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Alone," Mediators of Inflammation , vol. 2010, Article ID 748919, 6 pages, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • mDCs share markers in common with monocytes and granulocytes including CD13, CD33, and CD11b and perform the classical functions of DCs in taking up and presenting antigen on HLA class II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • cytokines
  • Furthermore, sorted Ly6Clow/CX3CR1hi cells produced high levels of IL-6, MIP-1 and TNF-α cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • 6 , 7 Understanding these regulatory mechanisms in an autologous setting free of exogenous cytokines or allogeneic stimulation is especially important given that nearly all translational applications of DCs use autologous, and not allogeneic, cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • After a bacterial encounter, these cells were phenotypically activated and produced levels of cytokines similar to healthy controls. (ovid.com)
  • Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines exhibiting antiviral and antitumor effects, including multiple activities on immune cells. (rupress.org)
  • These results provide a rationale for using type I IFNs as vaccine adjuvants and support the concept that a natural alliance between these cytokines and monocytes/DCs represents an important early mechanism for connecting innate and adaptive immunity. (rupress.org)
  • Type I IFNs are cytokines spontaneously expressed at low levels under normal physiological conditions ( 5 ), whose expression is highly enhanced soon after cell exposure to viruses or other stimuli ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Originally considered as simple antiviral substances, type I IFNs (especially IFN-α) have recently been reconsidered as important cytokines for the generation of a protective T cell-mediated immune response to virus infections and tumor growth ( 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • expression
  • Expression levels of DC-SIGN and PD-L2 were reduced significantly on cells cultured on non-adherent surfaces. (ovid.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and thereby influence cell fate and function. (mdpi.com)
  • Experiments with the proteasome-inhibitor Bortezomib/Velcade® show stable CYTIP expression levels in dendritic cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Gene expression profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells -- searching for molecular regulators of tolerogenicity. (ebscohost.com)
  • It is clear, however, that the non-classical pole of the spectrum contains cells with higher class II expression, allo-stimulatory capacity, and cytokine production that have led to their classification as a type of DC ( 2 , 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent evidence for FcRn expression by endothelial cells suggested that this may be the cell type most prominently involved in IgG protection ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Like other cell types, they express hundreds of different microRNAs (miRNAs) that are recently discovered post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. (uzh.ch)
  • Here we present updated miRNA expression profiles of monocytes, DCs and MFs. (uzh.ch)
  • precursors
  • Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen-presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. (nih.gov)
  • New ways to define these cells, and their precursors, may allow us to better understand their role in inflammation. (bu.edu)
  • Recently, it has been reported that the so-called "natural IFN-producing cells" (IPCs), whose nature had remained elusive for many years, are represented by CD4 + CD11c − type 2 DC precursors (pDC2s) ( 8 ), also defined as plasmacytoid monocytes ( 9 ), which produce unusually high amounts of type I IFN after microbial challenge. (rupress.org)
  • stimulatory
  • Contrary to published findings, CD1c+ DCs possessed a higher allo-stimulatory capacity than SlanDCs, and induced greater IL-17 in T cells. (bu.edu)
  • cDC1
  • Classical/conventional DC type 1 (cDC1) and type 2 (cDC2) are specialized in initiation and shaping of T-cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • lymphoid
  • The human syndrome of dendritic cell, monocyte, B and natural killer lymphoid deficiency presents as a sporadic or autosomal dominant trait causing susceptibility to mycobacterial and other infections, predisposition to myelodysplasia and leukemia, and, in some cases, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Because GATA2 is the only common mutated gene in 4 unrelated persons, it is highly probable to be the cause of dendritic cell, monocyte, B, and natural killer lymphoid deficiency. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The interaction of DCs with pathogens leads to migration to secondary lymphoid organs where they can initiate a specific T cell response. (rupress.org)
  • Known variously as dendritic cell, monocyte, B and NK lymphoid (DCML deficiency), 1 'autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia' 2 or 'MonoMAC' (monocytopenia with Mycobacterium avium complex), 3 it is characterized by a composite mononuclear cell deficiency, atypical mycobacterial and viral infection, and progression to myelodysplasia and leukemia. (haematologica.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • The identification of cell-type- and subset-specific gene transcription will assist in the quest for "marker molecules" that-when targeted by flow cytometry-will greatly facilitate research on bovine DC and monocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both by flow cytometry and gene set enrichment analysis, intermediate monocytes appear to be part of a continuum ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Prediction of miRNA-511 targets revealed a number of genes with known immune functions, of which TLR4 and CD80 were validated using inhibition of miR-511 in DCs and luciferase assays in HEK293 cells. (uzh.ch)
  • epithelial
  • The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for IgG, an MHC class I-related molecule, functions to transport IgG across polarized epithelial cells and protect IgG from degradation. (jimmunol.org)
  • A hallmark of FcRn interaction with its ligand is its strictly pH-dependent IgG binding in both epithelial and endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • actin
  • Integrins, expressed on cell surface, change membrane distribution upon interaction with an ECM receptor and this clustering induces signaling involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and actin binding ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This was particularly noticeable with proteins involved in cell growth and maintenance (for example, fibrinogen γ chain (FGG) and ubiquinol cytochrome c) and cell-cell interaction and integrity (for example, fascin and actin). (biomedcentral.com)