• The former contributes to the quaternary structure of 50 human proteins, whereas the latter defines a subfamily of 14 human FERM proteins and fulfills unknown roles. (rupress.org)
  • Although originally referred to as GLGF or DHR motifs, they are now known by an acronym representing these first three PDZ-containing proteins (PDZ: PSD95/DLG/ZO-1). (jci.org)
  • Hence, TALE factors control a key GRN, but utilize distinct DNA motifs and protein partners at different stages - a strategy that may also explain their oncogenic potential and may be employed by other broadly expressed TFs. (scicrunch.org)
  • These protein complexes mediate the adhesive properties of particular cells, the formation of the paracellular barrier (tight junctions), ion transport, and transmission of signals between adjacent cells that regulate growth, differentiation, and homeostasis. (jci.org)
  • When PTPrho proteins are engineered with the different point mutations observed in cancer and then are expressed in non-adherent Sf9 cells, these cells do not mediate comparable levels of cell-cell aggregation to wild-type PTPrho, demonstrating that the mutations observed in cancer are loss of function mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Much research has in turn been conducted over the last few years aimed at recreating but optimizing the compound's interactions with the protein. (jove.com)
  • We hypothesized that RNC would be ideal targets for crosslinkers engineered to promote aberrant protein-protein interactions, thereby blocking their orderly transport and packaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • These include the structural basis for specificity of their binding interactions and ideas about how they organize both small local protein complexes used for signal transduction (transducisomes) and larger two-dimensional complexes like cell junctions and plasma membrane domains. (jci.org)
  • Formation of these protein complexes is determined in large part by the interactions of modular protein-binding domains. (jci.org)
  • Because binding specificities are based on a few amino acid residues, these domains are uniquely suited to permit evolution of new protein interactions by coordinate mutations in the domain and target peptide sequence. (jci.org)
  • Thermophilic proteins tend to have a prominent hydrophobic core and increased electrostatic interactions to maintain activity at high temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • Cooperation between the two termini appears to generate a unique conformational state, specifically recognized by thioflavin T, that promoted efficient multimerization of the oligomer into high-molecular-mass soluble complexes and dramatically enhanced resistance against trypsin digestion, enterotoxin activity of the diarrhea-inducing region (DIR), and double-layered particle-binding activity of the protein. (asm.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that aPKC destabilizes the Yrt oligomer to repress its functions, thereby revealing a mechanism through which this kinase supports apical domain formation. (rupress.org)
  • Chimeric proteins containing combinations of different IRF-7 and IRF-3 domains were also tested, and the results provided evidence of distinct DNA binding properties of IRF-3 and IRF-7, as well as a preferential association of IRF-3 with the CREB binding protein (CBP) coactivator. (asm.org)
  • The product of this translocation is a chimeric protein in which the N-terminus is contributed by the apoptosis inhibitor, cIAP2, and the C-terminus is contributed by Malt1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cIAP2-Malt1-mediated NF-κB activation was attributed to spontaneous oligomerization of the chimeric protein, due to self-association of the N-terminal cIAP2-derived sequence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The idea of turning the humoral immune system inside out ( 1 ) as a means of intracellular immunization ( 2 ) was first demonstrated by Antman and Livingston in 1980 ( 3 ) where IgG specific for SV40 T antigens were capable of inhibiting viral DNA synthesis following microinjection into cells permissive for replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data also establish that the FERM-FA unit forms an oligomeric interface and that multimerization of Yrt is crucial for its function in epithelial cell polarity regulation. (rupress.org)
  • Overall, our study highlights a conserved biochemical property of fly and human Yrt proteins, describes a novel function of the FA domain, and further characterizes the molecular mechanisms sustaining epithelial cell polarity. (rupress.org)
  • Schematic diagram of a vertebrate polarized epithelial cell, showing the distinct subcellular localization of several epithelial PDZ proteins into the apical, basal-lateral, and junctional domains. (jci.org)
  • In polarized epithelial cells the apical and basolateral plasma membrane strongly differ in lipid and protein composition ( Rodriguez-Boulan and Nelson, 1989 ). (rupress.org)
  • These are structurally conserved elements with unique molecular specificities that can be found in proteins of many different functions. (jci.org)
  • In the present study, we build on these previous results, and investigate the consequences of chemokine receptor heteromerization with ChemR23, the receptor of chemerin, a leukocyte chemoattractant protein structurally unrelated to chemokines. (nih.gov)
  • Due to their remarkably high structural stability, proteins from extremophiles are particularly useful in numerous biological applications. (abo.fi)
  • By understanding the protein adaptations used by archaeal extremophiles, we hope to be able to engineer and utilize proteins for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications where function in extreme conditions is required for activity. (hindawi.com)
  • The recent identification of the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) as the first viral enterotoxin has attracted considerable attention toward understanding its structure and function. (asm.org)
  • Rotaviruses are nonenveloped, icosahedral, triple-layered particles, the outer layer made of viral spike protein 4 (VP4) and VP7, the intermediate layer consisting of the subgroup antigen VP6, and the inner layer composed of VP2 ( 18 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Previously we described a transdominant negative mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that downregulated the steady state levels of unspliced and singly spliced viral mRNA, an activity caused by inhibition of HIV-1 Rev activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribonucleocapsids (RNCs) of negative strand RNA viruses are a prime example where repetition of nucleoprotein (NP) along the genome creates a core polymeric helical scaffold that accommodates other nucleocapsid proteins including viral polymerase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, the 50S ribosomal RNA-binding protein L35Ae from the extremophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii has been probed for its potential to serve as a backbone in alternative scaffold engineering. (abo.fi)
  • In this report, we describe a modified concatemerization strategy to construct a gene with enhanced sequence diversity that encodes a highly repetitive elastin-like protein polymer for expression in Pichia pastoris . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nervous Wreck (Nwk) encodes an F-BAR/SH3 protein that regulates synapse growth in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • The first isoform encodes the larger version of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nervous wreck (Nwk) is a conserved F-BAR protein that attenuates synaptic growth and promotes synaptic function in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • PDZ domains were originally identified as conserved sequence elements within the postsynaptic density protein PSD95/SAP90, the Drosophila tumor suppressor dlg-A, and the tight junction protein ZO-1. (jci.org)
  • Mechanism of protein binding and the basis for specificity. (jci.org)
  • Initial descriptions of the activity of the wild-type Malt1 protein were based in large part upon analogy with the mechanism of NF-κB signaling by cIAP2-Malt1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) play important roles in diverse biological processes ranging from immunoregulation to tissue polarity, angiogenesis, and brain development. (asm.org)
  • The adhesion-class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) constitute the second largest GPCR subfamily, whose 33 members are expressed restrictedly in cells of the central nervous, immune, and/or reproductive systems ( 2 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Previous studies showed a peptide spanning aa 114 to 135 to induce diarrhea in newborn mouse pups with the 50% diarrheal dose approximately 100-fold higher than that for the full-length protein, suggesting a role for other regions in the protein in potentiating its diarrhea-inducing ability. (asm.org)
  • However, the coiled-coil domain lacks the information necessary to predict a structural basis for rotavirus virulence, as a peptide from this region exhibited highly reduced diarrhea-inducing potential compared to the full-length protein ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • 15 , 16 In addition, TFPIα circulates in plasma, 17 but only ≈10% to 30% is fully active, full-length protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that IRF-3 possesses a restricted DNA binding site specificity and interacts with CBP, whereas IRF-7 has a broader DNA binding specificity that contributes to its capacity to stimulate delayed-type IFN gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Unlike conventional F-BAR proteins that assemble tip-to-tip into filaments and helical arrays around membrane tubules, the Nwk F-BAR domain instead assembles into zigzags, creating ridges and periodic scallops on membranes in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • The translation of highly repetitive gene sequences is often associated with reduced levels of protein expression and may be prone to mutational events. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results indicate that SARM plays an integral role in the dismantling of injured axons and support a model in which SAM-mediated multimerization is necessary for TIR-dependent engagement of a downstream destruction pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rather than having one basic set of adaptations that works for all environments, Archaea have evolved separate protein features that are customized for each environment. (hindawi.com)
  • We categorized the Archaea into three general groups to describe what is known about their protein adaptations: thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic. (hindawi.com)
  • While acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and piezophiles are their own class of Archaea, their protein adaptations toward pH and pressure are less discernible. (hindawi.com)
  • In researching different Archaea, we have divided Archaeal protein adaptations into three general categories: thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic. (hindawi.com)
  • The results for the first 106 batches show qualitative agreement with prior benchmarks run on high-performance computing clusters, but some results demonstrate the new simulation protocols are not satisfactory for all types of analysis. (worldcommunitygrid.org)
  • Endotoxin has been a specific concern for ELP expression as it becomes associated with the protein product upon cell lysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Additionally, the expression of a variety of target proteins in transgenic tobacco has been enhanced by an order of magnitude when fused to elastin-like polypeptides 13 - 15 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As an alternate approach, yeast expression systems have become an increasingly attractive host for the expression of heterologous proteins 18 , 19 , due to their capacity to be incorporated into industrial-scale fermentation schemes characterized by high cell densities in relatively inexpensive media. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, heterologous proteins have been efficiently secreted into the expression medium, resulting in low-cost recovery of the protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expression of mutant VWF proteins confirmed that VWF multimerization is not necessary for Weibel-Palade body creation. (lonza.com)
  • In this report, employing a large number of methods and deletion and amino acid substitution mutants, we provide evidence for the cooperation between the extreme C terminus and a putative amphipathic α-helix located between aa 73 and 85 (AAH 73-85 ) at the N terminus of ΔN72, a mutant that lacked the N-terminal 72 aa of nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) from Hg18 and SA11. (asm.org)
  • These artificial binding proteins occupy a specific niche between antibodies and low molecular weight substances, paving the way for development of innovative approaches in therapeutics, diagnostics, and reagent use. (abo.fi)
  • For this purpose we cross-linked glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), Thy-1, influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and the raft lipid ganglioside GM1 using antibodies and/or cholera toxin. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we conclude that XBP1s is an important regulator of adiponectin multimerization, which may lead to a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypoadiponectinemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While studies of Wld s mice have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefit of suppressing axon degeneration in many neurological disorders, this gain-of-function mutation has not yielded direct insight into the genetic control of normal axon degeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Such a broad species distribution appears to be unique to this domain, but perhaps the most distinguishing feature of PDZ domains is the observation that the overwhelming majority of proteins containing them are associated with the plasma membrane. (jci.org)
  • The [email protected] team is working with the World Community Grid technical team to create a new sampling protocol, which will more closely predict the binding strengths of potential drugs to their HIV protein targets as determined in real-life experiments. (worldcommunitygrid.org)
  • Vps74p interacts with Golgi-resident glycosyltransferases and the coat protein COPI complex to modulate Golgi retention of glycosyltransferases and with the PtdIns(4)P phosphatase Sac1p to modulate PtdIns(4)P homeostasis at the Golgi. (nih.gov)
  • As deficiency in either IRE1α or XBP1 are embryonic-lethal, several recent studies have used various tissue-specific gain- and loss-of-function animal models to demonstrate that the IRE1α-XBP1s pathway plays an important role in metabolic regulation, particularly in the liver ( 4 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)