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  • strain
  • The 16S rDNA analysis revealed 99% nucleotide similarity to that of the type strain of R.rhodochrous (Fig. 2) ( 10 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • Among the three strains, the whole genome sequence of the strain AK35 has only been sequenced in order to better understanding benzothalzole (BT) degradation. (kenyon.edu)
  • The Sphingomonas macrogolitabida strain TFA is a gram-negative bacterium that is able to grow on tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) as the only carbon and energy source ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The genes coding for these enzymes are located on pVI150, an IncP-2 degradative mega plasmid of this strain. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition to the degradation reactions, O-methylation was observed during the 4-t-octylphenol degradation by strain TX1. (ncu.edu.tw)
  • Degradation of 4-fluorocinnamic acid by strain G1 occurred through a β-oxidation mechanism and started with the formation of 4-fluorocinnamoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), as indicated by the presence of 4-fluorocinnamoyl-CoA ligase. (asm.org)
  • For the two other linear plasmids of strain RHA1, their role in catabolism, especially in the degradation of biphenyl/PCBs, has been established fairly well. (alpfmedical.info)
  • substrates
  • Further classification into mono- and dioxygenases in based on whether the enzyme causes transfer of just one atom to the substrate (S) (eq. 1) or whether the whole molecule is incorporated into a single substrate (eq. 2a) or is shared by a pair of substrates (S, S′) (eq. 2b) ( 1, 2 ) 1 . (springer.com)
  • Rhodococcus species typically metabolize aromatic substrates by first oxygenating the aromatic ring to form a diol (two alcohol groups). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Side chain degradation is carried out either by β-oxidation or by direct deacetylation mechanisms, which leads to elimination of two carbon units from the unsaturated side chain in bacteria, yeasts, and fungi ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • While the transformation mechanisms of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the human body and in other animals have been extensively studied, the degradation of these drugs by bacteria has been seldom investigated and remains largely unknown (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • extradiol
  • A 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase (ThnC) is responsible for the extradiol cleavage of the catechol derivative ( 1 ), followed by hydrolytic cleavage (by ThnD) of the C-C bond that is part of the alicyclic ring of the fission product, resulting in a long dicarboxylic acid with 10 carbon atoms ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Extradiol members utilize ferrous iron as the active redox state, and this center is commonly coordinated octahedrally through a 2-His-1-Glu motif with labile water ligands occupying empty positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and its degradation products are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans and other biological systems. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates 7 . (igem.org)
  • biphenyl
  • With respect to the initial step of biphenyl degradation, expression of all sets of ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes (bphA, etbAl, etbA2) likewise is induced by biphenyl, and gene disruption experiments suggested that all these genes are involved in biphenyl degradation (Takeda et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • 2006). Two cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenases BphB1 and BphB2, which are encoded on pRHL1 and pRHL2, respectively, catalyze the second step in biphenyl catabolism, i.e., the rearomatization of the cis-dihydrodiol to form 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Xenobiotic
  • From energetic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation to xenobiotic degradation, the use of dioxygen as a biological oxidant is widespread and varied in the exact mechanism of its use. (wikipedia.org)
  • vanillic acid
  • The conversion of nonhalogenated cinnamic acids to benzoic acids, such as the transformation of ferulic acid to vanillic acid, has been described previously ( 2 , 4 , 20 , 31 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • reactions
  • Despite this common oxygenation event, the mononuclear iron dioxygenases are diverse in how dioxygen activation is used to promote certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • 2014). It is suggested that the transformation of naproxen by Trametes versicolor or activated sludge may occur by 2-(6-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid and 1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone formation (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • genome wide
  • To understand the common gene expression patterns employed by P. placenta during lignocellulose degradation, we have retrieved genome wide transcriptome datasets from NCBI GEO database and analyzed using customized analysis pipeline. (ijbs.com)
  • Following initial reconstruction from genome annotation and the literature, we iteratively refined the model by comparing its predictions with the results of large-scale experiments: (1) high-throughput growth phenotypes of the wild-type strain on 190 distinct environments, (2) genome-wide gene essentialities from a knockout mutant library, and (3) large-scale growth phenotypes of all mutant strains on 8 minimal media. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxygenation
  • Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (genome.jp)
  • Despite this common oxygenation event, the mononuclear iron dioxygenases are diverse in how dioxygen activation is used to promote certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Three lithologic units along basement Hole U1383C were found, which typically hosted ∼10 4 cells cm -3 of basaltic rock, with higher cell densities occurring between 115 and 145 m below seafloor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular
  • Molecular structure of ochratoxins naturally produced by filamentous fungi [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • compared a combination
  • We compared a combination of 2 mg perindopril/0.625 mg indapamide with enalapril monotherapy on albumin excretion rate (AER) in patients with type 2 diabetes, albuminuria, and hypertension in a 12-month, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group international multicenter study. (uliege.be)
  • iron
  • Iron-containing dioxygenases can be subdivided into three classes on the basis of how iron is incorporated into the active site: those employing a mononuclear iron center, those containing a Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, and those utilizing a heme prosthetic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mononculear iron dioxygenases are members of the cupin superfamily in which the overall domain structure is described as a six-stranded β-barrel fold (or jelly roll motif). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the center this barrel structure is a metal ion, most commonly ferrous iron, whose coordination environment is frequently provided by residues in two partially conserved structural motifs: G(X)5HXH(X)3-4E(X)6G and G(X)5-7PXG(X)2H(X)3N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important groups of mononuclear, non-heme iron dioxygenases are catechol dioxygenases and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2OG-dependent dioxygenases, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is also coordinated by a (His)2(Glu/Asp)1 "facial triad" motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica 's evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phenol is an aromatic pollutant, which is present in the wastewaters of numerous industries including oil refining, petrochemical, coal-coking and coal-gasification (Singer et al. (scielo.br)