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  • oxidation
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Among the three strains, the whole genome sequence of the strain AK35 has only been sequenced in order to better understanding benzothalzole (BT) degradation. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacteria
  • These bacteria subsequently employ 1,2-CTD in the last step of the degradation of aromatic compounds to aliphatic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the transformation mechanisms of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the human body and in other animals have been extensively studied, the degradation of these drugs by bacteria has been seldom investigated and remains largely unknown (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • effector
  • The first is that the binding of the terminal phospholipids alters the conformation of the active sites, implying that the tunnel acts as an effector, only allowing the enzyme to be active in certain areas of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • carbon
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of a carbon source, such as glucose, acetate or powdered milk, increases the level of naproxen degradation (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • strain
  • The 16S rDNA analysis revealed 99% nucleotide similarity to that of the type strain of R.rhodochrous (Fig. 2) ( 10 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • THe pathway of aromatic compound degradation by strain AK 37 has not been described ( 1 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • For the two other linear plasmids of strain RHA1, their role in catabolism, especially in the degradation of biphenyl/PCBs, has been established fairly well. (alpfmedical.info)
  • proteins
  • However, especially in the case of homologous proteins showing relatively low sequence identities, such multiple 'isofunctional' enzymes may well have evolved distinct specificities for different sets of substrates (Gon^alves et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • hydroxylase
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • p-Hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • widely
  • hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine is widely used for military and commercial purposes due to its high explosive properties. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Some of these enzymes seem to be widely distributed among aromatic-compound degrading species. (kenyon.edu)
  • Therefore
  • The enzyme resembles a boomerang in shape, and can therefore be clearly divided into three domains: two catalytic domains residing at each end of the "boomerang" and a linker domain at the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • 2014). It is suggested that the transformation of naproxen by Trametes versicolor or activated sludge may occur by 2-(6-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid and 1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone formation (Quintana et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (genome.jp)
  • belongs
  • It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, 1293 (2). (iisc.ernet.in)
  • activity
  • Both enzymes have been characterized as 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolases with low activity toward 2-hydroxy-6-oxophenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (the substrate of BphD), but EtbD2 and EtbD1 convert the latter compound with 11 and 3.3% relative activity, respectively (Yamada et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • step
  • 2006). Two cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenases BphB1 and BphB2, which are encoded on pRHL1 and pRHL2, respectively, catalyze the second step in biphenyl catabolism, i.e., the rearomatization of the cis-dihydrodiol to form 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. (alpfmedical.info)
  • recent
  • Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica 's evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • present
  • Cellulose is present in plant cell walls, stems, straw, stalks and other woody portion of the plant, it alone constitutes to 40-50% of dry weight of plant material [ 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • ability
  • This, along with its ability to reduce perchlorate (a teratogenic contaminant introduced into the environment by man) and inquiry into its use in biocells [ 3 ] has led to interest in using this organism for bioremediation and energy production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • compound
  • Both enzymes have been characterized as 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolases with low activity toward 2-hydroxy-6-oxophenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (the substrate of BphD), but EtbD2 and EtbD1 convert the latter compound with 11 and 3.3% relative activity, respectively (Yamada et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • We constructed and optimized one such pathway in E. coli to enable catabolism of a model aromatic compound, protocatechuate, and then extended the pathway to a related compound, 4-hydroxybenzoate. (asm.org)
  • Some of these enzymes seem to be widely distributed among aromatic-compound degrading species. (kenyon.edu)
  • catabolism
  • 2006). Two cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenases BphB1 and BphB2, which are encoded on pRHL1 and pRHL2, respectively, catalyze the second step in biphenyl catabolism, i.e., the rearomatization of the cis-dihydrodiol to form 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. (alpfmedical.info)
  • substrates
  • Further classification into mono- and dioxygenases in based on whether the enzyme causes transfer of just one atom to the substrate (S) (eq. 1) or whether the whole molecule is incorporated into a single substrate (eq. 2a) or is shared by a pair of substrates (S, S′) (eq. 2b) ( 1, 2 ) 1 . (springer.com)
  • Organism
  • This, along with its ability to reduce perchlorate (a teratogenic contaminant introduced into the environment by man) and inquiry into its use in biocells [ 3 ] has led to interest in using this organism for bioremediation and energy production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phenolic
  • The second hypothesis postulates that the tunnel regulates lipid membrane rigidity through its degradation of phenolic hydrocarbons and ability to bind to other lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The predictions of the final version of the model, which included three rounds of refinements, are consistent with the experimental results for (1) 91% of the wild-type growth phenotypes, (2) 94% of the gene essentiality results, and (3) 94% of the mutant growth phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We next used experimental evolution to select for mutations that increased growth with protocatechuate more than 2-fold. (asm.org)
  • Chemical
  • It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratases of Geobacter metallireducens and Syntrophus aciditrophicus: Evidence for a common benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway in facultative and strict anaerobes. (genome.jp)