Loading...
  • mediates
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) mediates neurotoxic effects by phosphorylating and inhibiting MEF2. (jneurosci.org)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediates the production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Pulmonary arterial cell cultures treated with fasudil showed a significant increase in eNOS mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner, and the half-life of eNOS mRNA increased 2-folds. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent premature degradation of p27, Skp2 levels are kept low during early and mid-G1 due to the APC/CCdh1ubiquitin ligase, which mediates the ubiquitylation of Skp2. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The synthesis of cyclin D is initiated during G1 and drives the G1/S phase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • After complete synthesis of its DNA, the cell enters the G2 phase where it continues to grow in preparation for mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with most processes in the body, the cell cycle is highly regulated to prevent the synthesis of mutated cells and uncontrolled cell division that leads to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncogene
  • Skp2 behaves as an oncogene in cell systems and is an established protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • Cyclin D1 overexpression is correlated with shorter cancer patient survival and increased metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of Cyclin D1b, an isoform, is also present in breast and prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, overexpression of translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) leads to an increased level of cyclin D protein and increased amount of cyclin D mRNA outside of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, a recent research pointed out cyclin E overexpression is a mechanism of Trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin E overexpression is implicated in carcinomas at various sites along the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin E overexpression was found in 50-60% of gastric adenomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impact of cyclin E overexpression on Smad3 activity in breast cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • The tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2 have been implicated in the etiology of LAM, as mutations and loss of heterozygosity in the TSC genes have been detected in LAM cells (Figure 7). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • However, although IL-6 is essential, it is not sufficient and additional factors, produced by the microenvironment or the tumor cells themselves, are required together with IL-6 to promote tumor growth ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gankyrin also has an anti-apoptotic effect and is overexpressed in certain types of tumor cells such as hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered expression increased with the increasing stage and grade of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Over the past several years, in collaboration with Bill Cruikshank, he has studied the role of IL-16 in recruitment and development of Regulatory T cells and demonstrated that it plays a key role in tolerance to airborne allergens. (bu.edu)
  • Utilizing transgenic knockout and overexpressing mice his laboratory is involved in demonstrating the patterns of CD4+ T cell trafficking through lymph nodes and lung parenchymal in normal and immunologically challenged lungs and identifying potential therapeutic implications of altering recruitment patterns of Regulatory T cells. (bu.edu)
  • 2007 Preferential migration of T regulatory cells induced by IL-16. (bu.edu)
  • Various cellular regulatory mechanisms heavily depend on ubiquitin-dependent degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCF (Cdc4) complex's regulatory function concerning S-phase entry comprises not only degradation of Sic1, but also degradation of Swi5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 has a N-terminal kinase domain, a linker region, a regulatory SQ/TQ domain and a C-terminal domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 has a regulatory role in the spindle checkpoint however the relationship is less clear as compared to checkpoints in other cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Unlike the SCF, activator subunits control the APC/C. Cdc20 and Cdh1 are the two activators of particular importance to the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In these studies, along with Yujun Zhang he has shown that Interleukin-16 is synthesized as a precursor which is present in cytoplasm and nucleus of resting T cells. (bu.edu)
  • During the G1 phase, it is synthesized rapidly and accumulates in the nucleus, and is degraded as the cell enters the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, when phosphorylated by Cln3-Cdk1, Whi5 is ejected from the nucleus, allowing for transcription of the G1/S regulon, which includes the G1/S cyclins Cln1,2. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • She is a cell biologist with research focused on cytoskeletal regulation in various cell systems and on cytoskeletal dysfunctions of the centrosome-microtubule complex that play a role in disease such as cancer and in disorders such as infertility and other reproductive disorders. (ebooks.com)
  • The regulation of cell size is critical to ensure functionality of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • This may provide a progressive selective advantage for neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes associated with phenotypic heterogeneity of intratumour HCC cells, thus posing even more challenges in HCC treatment development. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, Sic1 protein degradation is necessary to enter S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This step occurs very early when the cell is exiting the quiescent phase and thus is independent of Skp2 degradation of p27. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyper-phosphorylated Rb will no longer interact with E2F transcriptional factor, thus release it to promote expression of genes that drive cells to S phase through G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a kinase determining the timepoint of entry into mitosis, thus influencing the size of the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence to indicate that Chk1 kinase is necessary to arrest cells that escape G2 block at the early stages of mitosis (supported by NIH grants CA101753 and CA076348). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of Chk1 results in the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 is a central component of genome surveillance pathways and is a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 is required for the initiation of DNA damage checkpoints and has recently been shown to play a role in the normal (unperturbed) cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 monitors DNA replication in unperturbed cell cycles and responds to genotoxic stress if present. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage induces the activation of Chk1 which facilitates the initiation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc25C in turn is activated by Polo kinase and inactivated by Chk1. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • The PEITC-mediated inhibition of PC-3 cell migration was statistically significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Impaired carcinogen activation due to inhibition of cytochrome P 450-dependent monooxygenases and/or increased detoxification of the carcinogenic intermediates due to induction of phase 2 enzymes (e.g., glutathione transferases) are considered important mechanisms for PEITC-mediated inhibition of chemically induced cancers in animal models (reviewed in ref. 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is characterized by malignant accumulation of small CD5 positive lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. (tum.de)
  • It is characterized by the accumulation of a clone of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Positive feed-back loops include G1 cyclins and accumulation of E2F. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Increasing cyclin D1 levels during the G1 phase is induced by mitogenic growth factors primarily through Ras mediated pathways, and hormones. (wikipedia.org)