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  • Genes
  • Genes coding for energy metabolism involved in hydrocarbon degradation, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and hydrogen oxidation were identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. (nih.gov)
  • Genes, 2 (4), 853−868.10.3390/genes2040853. (etis.ee)
  • The genes coding for the conversion of carbazole to catechol are flanked by IS6100 elements in Sphingomonas sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • xylE
  • In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates 7 . (igem.org)
  • strain
  • In addition to the degradation reactions, O-methylation was observed during the 4-t-octylphenol degradation by strain TX1. (ncu.edu.tw)
  • strain O-1 with subsequent meta ring cleavage and spontaneous desulphonation to 2-hydroxymuconic acid. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • strain JS42 to 2-nitrotoluene. (nih.gov)
  • strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. (nih.gov)
  • We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. (nih.gov)
  • The 16S rDNA analysis revealed 99% nucleotide similarity to that of the type strain of R.rhodochrous (Fig. 2) ( 10 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • Among the three strains, the whole genome sequence of the strain AK35 has only been sequenced in order to better understanding benzothalzole (BT) degradation. (kenyon.edu)
  • strain K‑804 [ 2 , 3 ] isolated from sorghum grain, and proved to be acutely toxic to Pekin ducklings, mice and rats [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • strain Q1, a strain naturally found in soil and paper mill sludge, contains the ability to degrade quinoline, various pyridine derivatives, catechol, benzoate, and protocatechuic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • xenobiotic
  • From energetic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation to xenobiotic degradation, the use of dioxygen as a biological oxidant is widespread and varied in the exact mechanism of its use. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydrogenase
  • The enzyme 1,2-dihydroxy-6-methylcyclohexa-3,5-dienecarboxylate dehydrogenase uses 1,2-dihydroxy-6-methylcyclohexa-3,5-dienecarboxylate and NAD+ to produce 3-methylcatechol, NADH and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The dioxygenases (EC 1.13.11) catalyze the oxidation of a substrate without the reduction of one oxygen atom from dioxygen into a water molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, fatty acid hydroperoxidation, carbon-sulfur bond cleavage, and thiol oxidation are all reactions catalyzed by mononuclear iron dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidation of the catechol 3',4'-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a reversible reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Dorn E, Knackmuss H-J (1978) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds: two catechol 1,2-dioxygenases from a 3-chlorobenzoate grown pseudomonad. (springer.com)
  • The byproducts are stored in the form of tailings ponds where the water contains (1) toxic organic compounds such as naphthenic acids and catechol, (2) heavy metals, and (3) fine clay sediment 1 . (igem.org)
  • The toxic organic compounds can be broken down into molecules that are metabolizable by all organisms, such as 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (2-HMS) 3 . (igem.org)
  • Catechol is a prime candidate to function as a hub for the funneling and subsequent degradation of other toxic compounds found in abundance, such as naphthene, anthracene, and fluorene into 2-HMS (Figure 1) 3,4,5 . (igem.org)
  • Octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEOn) are surfactants and prone to be degraded into xenoestrogenic metabolites, such as octylphenol and OPEOn (n=1-2), are estrogenic-like compounds, and persistent to be degraded by bacteria in the environments. (ncu.edu.tw)
  • These bacteria subsequently employ 1,2-CTD in the last step of the degradation of aromatic compounds to aliphatic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolyzes
  • It also hydrolyzes it to 2-aminobenzimidazole, which is converted to 2-hydroxybenzimidazole. (ethz.ch)
  • moiety
  • OTA is composed of a 7-carboxy-5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-3- R -methylisocoumarin (ochratoxin α) moiety and a L- β -phenylalanine molecule, which are linked through the 7‑carboxy group by an amide bond. (mdpi.com)
  • The A ring is similar to a resorcinol moiety while the B ring is similar to a catechol moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenol
  • Catechin /ˈkætɪtʃɪn/ is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygenation
  • 1. Hayaishi, O. Direct oxygenation by O 2 , oxygenases. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Despite this common oxygenation event, the mononuclear iron dioxygenases are diverse in how dioxygen activation is used to promote certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • Rhodococcus jialingiae djl-6-2 is capable of using carbendazim as the sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth. (ethz.ch)
  • carbon
  • SG-4G is capable of using carbendazim, 2-aminobenzimidazole, and 2-hydroxybenzimidazole as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. (ethz.ch)
  • The catechol dioxygenases, some of the most well-studied dioxygenase enzymes, use dioxygen to cleave a carbon-carbon bond of an aromatic catechol ring system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We have reported the genome wide expression patterns of genes coding for information, storage and processing (KOG), tentative and predicted molecular networks involved in cellulose, hemicellulose degradation and list of significant protein-ID's commonly expressed among different lignocellulolytic growth conditions. (ijbs.com)
  • Genes, 2 (4), 853−868.10.3390/genes2040853. (etis.ee)
  • Here, we show that the PrrF1 and PrrF2 sRNAs promote AQ production by redundantly inhibiting translation of antR , which encodes a transcriptional activator of the anthranilate degradation genes. (asm.org)
  • The genes coding for the conversion of carbazole to catechol are flanked by IS6100 elements in Sphingomonas sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome wide
  • To understand the common gene expression patterns employed by P. placenta during lignocellulose degradation, we have retrieved genome wide transcriptome datasets from NCBI GEO database and analyzed using customized analysis pipeline. (ijbs.com)
  • Following initial reconstruction from genome annotation and the literature, we iteratively refined the model by comparing its predictions with the results of large-scale experiments: (1) high-throughput growth phenotypes of the wild-type strain on 190 distinct environments, (2) genome-wide gene essentialities from a knockout mutant library, and (3) large-scale growth phenotypes of all mutant strains on 8 minimal media. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cleave
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrocarbons
  • The second hypothesis postulates that the tunnel regulates lipid membrane rigidity through its degradation of phenolic hydrocarbons and ability to bind to other lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2-CTD degrades phenolic hydrocarbons key to the synthesis lipid membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, 1,2-CTD may bind to the cell lipid membrane via its terminal phospholipids and thus have greater access to the phenolic hydrocarbons vital in lipid membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • One molecule of 4-coumaroyl-CoA is added to three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form tetrahydroxychalcone using 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavanol synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two chiral centers on the molecule on carbons 2 and 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica 's evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The predictions of the final version of the model, which included three rounds of refinements, are consistent with the experimental results for (1) 91% of the wild-type growth phenotypes, (2) 94% of the gene essentiality results, and (3) 94% of the mutant growth phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)