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  • mammalian host
  • In the highly derived larval form of E. multilocularis , which proliferates asexually within the mammalian host, we found ubiquitous expression of posterior Wnt factors combined with localized expression of Wnt inhibitors that correlates with the asexual budding of scoleces. (beds.ac.uk)
  • oncospheres
  • Rickard and Bell ( 23 - 25 ) showed that some host-protective antigens from oncospheres were excretory/secretory products. (asm.org)
  • 21 , 22 ) proposed that the secretions contained in secretory blebs produced from the penetration glands of activated oncospheres may be a source of host-protective antigens. (asm.org)
  • genetic
  • The biological sources of unexplained variation are also plenty and involve both host and parasite genetic and epigenetic physiological factors at the individual level [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This variation may result from genetic differences in the host or parasite population, co-evolutionary processes or reflect differences in the environmental conditions experienced by populations. (core.ac.uk)
  • experimental
  • Thus, Experimental murine intraperitoneal (ip) cysticercosis by T. crassiceps ORF strain (ExpMurIPTcrasCistiOrf) has been extensively used for genetical, immunological, endocrinological, and behavioral studies of host-parasite relationships [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • found
  • Elevated temperatures were also found to significantly increase parasite growth and reduce host growth. (core.ac.uk)
  • The microfilariae of O. volvulus are found in the dermis layer of skin in the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution
  • Understanding the processes that produce this heterogeneity in the distribution of macroparasites in their host populations continues to be a central research area in ecological parasitology [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Once
  • Once in the peritoneal cavity, the cysticerci reproduce asexually by budding [ 2 ], until reaching massive parasite loads in a matter of 3-6 months that weigh as much as the host [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)