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  • Proteins
  • Further, a defective BTV-8 strain was made by reassorting the two RNA segments that encode the two outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) of a highly pathogenic BTV-8 with the remaining eight RNA segments of one of the BTV-1 DISC viruses. (mysciencework.com)
  • We have previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that express gag, pol, and env proteins from two transcomplementing genomes and produce helper-free stocks of retroviral vectors with different host ranges. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Similar proteins with variable electrophoretic mobility (37 to 39 kilodaltons) were encoded by BamHI Z fragments from standard, nondefective Epstein-Barr virus genomes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Plasmids expressing the ZEBRA proteins from B95-8 and HR-1 viruses were less efficient at activating replication in D98/HR-1 cells than those which contained the ZEBRA gene from the defective virus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins and George Washington universities report new evidence that proteins created by defective forms of HIV long previously believed to be harmless actually interact with our immune systems and are actively monitored by a specific type of immune cell, called cytotoxic T cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a report on the study , conducted on laboratory-grown human cells and published April 12 in the journal Cell Host and Microbe , the investigators say their experiments show that while defective HIV proviruses -- the viral genetic material -- cannot create functional infectious HIVs, a specific subset called "hypermutated" HIV proviruses creates proteins that cytotoxic T cells recognize as HIV. (eurekalert.org)
  • After verifying that defective HIV proviruses created HIV proteins, the researchers then tested whether human immune system cells could biologically recognize and interact with those proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cytotoxic T lymphocytes' ability to identify and target the real threat appears to be greatly impaired, because they may attack proteins from defective proviruses instead of the real thing," says Ho. (eurekalert.org)
  • The defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of endogenous Ag processing posits that rapidly degraded forms of nascent proteins are a major source of peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • This rapidity of presentation, coupled with the relatively long half-life ( t 1/2 ) of most viral proteins, engendered the defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of Ag presentation: a subset of newly synthesized proteins are defective in some manner and rapidly degraded intracellularly, yielding peptides for MHC class I Ag presentation to enable rapid immunosurveillance of viral and cellular translation products ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • vectors
  • Replication-incompetent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors do not elicit vector-neutralizing antibody responses, and homologous prime-boost regimens with rLCMV vectors induce boostable and protective T cell responses to model antigens in mice. (jpt.com)
  • mutants
  • Although all of the DI genomes studied to date are shorter than the standard viral genome and are deletion mutants, it is possible some DI genome may contain an altered nucleic acid sequence(s) rather than a deletion(s) and become defective as well as interfering. (springer.com)
  • Noncytopathic mutants of Newcastle disease virus are defective in virus-specific RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • We have studied virus-specific RNA synthesis in cells infected by six noncytopathic (nc) mutants of the Australia-Victoria wild-type strain (AV-WT) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (19). (asm.org)
  • Genes
  • Molecular analysis of structural protein genes of the Yamagata-1 strain of defective subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For MVA, deletion of the non-essential genes E3L and F13L, respectively [ 23 , 24 ] resulted in viruses of altered plaque properties or narrowed host range, allowing the selection of recombinants after re-introduction of these genes and rescue of the wild-type phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there is broad experimental support for the DRiP hypothesis, careful kinetic analysis of the generation of defined peptide class I complexes has been limited to studies of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing genes derived from other organisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • protein
  • Characterization of the growth properties of mutant viruses showed that each mutant has the necessary characteristics for a potential vaccine strain: (i) viral protein expression in noncomplementing mammalian cells, (ii) no infectious virus generated in noncomplementing cells, and (iii) efficient replication in the complementing VP6 cell line. (mysciencework.com)
  • The full-length cDNA corresponding to the mRNA of the fusion (F) protein of the Yamagata-1 strain of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) virus was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Influenza Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Expression by a Defective RNA-Encoded Protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this particular case, the KAN-1-induced defective RNA-encoded protein PB2∆ enhances the overwhelming immune response characteristic for highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, leading to a more severe phenotype in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The fact that defective proviruses can contribute to viral RNA and protein production is concerning, because it means that the measurements of HIV load in infected patients may not be as accurate as we thought. (eurekalert.org)
  • UCLA
  • Defective viruses, thought for decades to be essentially garbage unrelated to the transmission of normal viruses, now appear able to play an important role in the spread of disease, new research by UCLA life scientists indicates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In findings published Feb. 28 in the journal PLoS Pathogens, UCLA scientists and their colleagues report for the first time a significant link between a defective virus and an increased rate of transmission of a major disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James O. Lloyd-Smith, a UCLA assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and the senior author of the research. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James Lloyd-Smith, an ecologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). (nsf.gov)
  • infects
  • The dengue virus infects between 50 million and 100 million people each year in Southeast Asia, South America, parts of the United States and elsewhere. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Dengue virus infects some 50-100 million people annually in Southeast Asia, South America and parts of the United States. (nsf.gov)
  • genome
  • Bean, W.J., Simpson, R.W.: Transcription activity and genome conposition of defective influenza vims. (springer.com)
  • Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope, a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It contains an insertion of simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences 3.2 × 103 bases long in place of the 3.5 × 103 base segment of adenovirus 2 DNA which maps between 0.64 and 0.74 fractional genome lengths from the left end of the viral DNA. (cshl.edu)
  • species
  • Bunyaviridae , host plant species, virus concentration in inoculum. (apsnet.org)
  • We have analyzed atypical tomato bushy stunt virus defective interfering (DI) RNA species which accumulated during a passage series in protoplasts. (unl.edu)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • In the current report we assessed immune responsiveness to EBV in patients with SLE and healthy controls, determining virus-specific T cell responses and EBV viral loads using whole blood recall assays, HLA-A2 tetramers, and real-time quantitative PCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • Ke discovered that the lineage of defective viruses emerged between June 1998 and February 2001 and that it was spreading in the population until at least 2002. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In a paper published this week in the journal PLoS Pathogens, scientists funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) report a significant link between one such defective virus and the high rate of transmission of DENV-1 in Myanmar in 2001. (nsf.gov)
  • cytotoxic
  • Regarding the latter possibility, lupus patients do appear to be more susceptible to viral infections, including reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV), a possible consequence of aberrant cytotoxic T cell function ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • scientists
  • In the study, the scientists collected nine different defective HIV proviruses from six people infected with HIV, then transfected cultures of human immune cells with them in the laboratory. (eurekalert.org)